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Opodatkowanie konsumpcji, pracy i kapitału w krajach Unii Europejskiej

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  • Anna Krajewska

Abstract

Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie długookresowych trendów dotyczących opodatkowania konsumpcji, pracy i kapitału w krajach Unii Europejskiej, ze szczególnym zwróceniem uwagi na specyfikę polityki podatkowej w Polsce. W oparciu o dane statystyczne Komisji Europejskiej i OECD za lata 1995-2016 oraz przegląd literatury została podjęta próba weryfikacji następujących hipotez: 1. W obliczu kryzysu finansowego spadały dochody budżetowe z podatków, a główny ciężar łagodzenia deficytu budżetowego spoczywał na podatkach konsumpcyjnych. 2. Mimo licznych zmian dotyczących opodatkowania pracy w krajach Unii Europejskiej (podatku dochodowego od osób fizycznych i składek ubezpieczeniowych) ich udział w dochodach budżetowych kształtował się na zbliżonym poziomie. 3. Konkurencja podatkowa zapoczątkowana przez nowych członków UE oraz potrzeba stymulowania wychodzenia gospodarki z kryzysu sprawiła, że podmioty gospodarcze w relatywnie niższym stopniu uczestniczyły w zasilaniu dochodów budżetowych z podatków. 4. Polityka podatkowa w Polsce odbiega wyraźnie od prowadzonej w krajach Europy Zachodniej i wykazuje wiele cech typowych dla krajów o „południowej” mentalności podatkowej. Przeprowadzona analiza upoważnia do, przynajmniej częściowego, potwierdzenia przyjętych hipotez. Równocześnie wskazuje na to, że systemy podatkowe krajów Unii Europejskiej są mocno zróżnicowane. Skłania to do ostrożnego formułowania wniosków. Dotyczy to zwłaszcza podatników określanych jako samozatrudnieni, gdyż stanowią oni bardzo niejednoznaczną kategorię. Według statystyki Eurostatu ich dochody traktowane są jako dochody kapitałowe, a w Polsce znaczną ich część można raczej traktować jako dochody z pracy.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Krajewska, 2019. "Opodatkowanie konsumpcji, pracy i kapitału w krajach Unii Europejskiej," Gospodarka Narodowa. The Polish Journal of Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 2, pages 41-63.
  • Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2019:i:2:p:41-63
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. European Commission, 2018. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2018 edition," Taxation trends 2018, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
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    3. European Commission, 2012. "Taxation trends in the European Union: 2012 edition," Taxation trends 2012, Directorate General Taxation and Customs Union, European Commission.
    4. Marek Gora & Artur Radziwill & Agnieszka Sowa & Mateusz Walewski, 2006. "Tax Wedge and Skills: Case of Poland in International Perspective," CASE Network Reports 0064, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    podatki; kryzys; klin podatkowy; Polska; Unia Europejska;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • E64 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Incomes Policy; Price Policy
    • H21 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Efficiency; Optimal Taxation
    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies

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