IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/rai/indbez/doi_10.1688-1862-0035_indb_2013_01_bauhoff.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

'Sekretaerin des Vorstandes' gesucht: Stellenanzeigen und die expressive Funktion des AGG (Hiring 'Female Secretary to the Board of Directors': Job Adverts and the Expressive Function of the General Act on Equal Treatment)

Author

Listed:
  • Bauhoff, Frauke
  • Schneider, Martin

Abstract

Das Allgemeine Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) veraendert die Formulierung von Stellenanzeigen nicht durch Zwang oder die Furcht vor hohem Schadenersatz, sondern durch verschiedene soziale Effekte, die unter dem Stichwort der „expressiven Funktion“ des Rechts zusammengefasst werden. Die Idee der expressiven Funktion des AGG wird in diesem Beitrag geprueft anhand einer Inhaltsanalyse von 332 Stellenanzeigen in der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung und der Neuen Westfaelischen. Im Jahr 2005 waren 47 Prozent der Stellenanzeigen diskriminierend (im Sinne des AGG), im Jahr 2010 waren es nur noch 25 Prozent. Diskriminierende Formulierungen im Hinblick auf das Alter sind beinahe voellig verschwunden. Diskriminierende Formulierungen im Hinblick auf das Geschlecht sind zwar seltener geworden, kommen aber immer noch ueberraschend haeufig vor: Im Jahr 2005 waren 36 Prozent der Anzeigen diskriminierend im Hinblick auf das Geschlecht, im Jahr 2010 immer noch 23 Prozent. Der Rueckgang diskriminierender Formulierungen ist besonders stark bei kleineren Unternehmen (unter 250 Beschaeftigten). (The 2006 General Act on Equal Treatment brought about changes in the wording of job adverts not through coercion or employer concerns about compensation but, rather, via social effects that have been summarized under the term “expressive law”. In this paper, the idea of the expressive function of the General Act is tested through a content analysis of 332 job adverts published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (a national newspaper) and the Neue Westfaelische (a regional newspaper). Overall, 47 percent of the job adverts published in 2005 was discriminating according to the stipulations of the Act. By 2010, the figure was only around 25 percent. Jobs adverts discriminating with respect to age had almost disappeared in 2010. There was also a decline in job adverts discriminating with respect to gender but the share is still surprisingly large. In particular, 36 percent of job adverts published in 2005 were discriminating with respect to gender. In 2010, the figure was still around 23 percent. The decline in discriminating job adverts was particularly strong among smaller firms (below 250 employees).)

Suggested Citation

  • Bauhoff, Frauke & Schneider, Martin, 2013. "'Sekretaerin des Vorstandes' gesucht: Stellenanzeigen und die expressive Funktion des AGG (Hiring 'Female Secretary to the Board of Directors': Job Adverts and the Expressive Function of the General A," Industrielle Beziehungen - Zeitschrift fuer Arbeit, Organisation und Management - The German Journal of Industrial Relations, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 20(1), pages 54-76.
  • Handle: RePEc:rai:indbez:doi_10.1688/1862-0035_indb_2013_01_bauhoff
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.hampp-verlag.de/hampp_e-journals_IndB.htm#113
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniele Checchi & Claudio Lucifora, 2002. "Unions and labour market institutions in Europe," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 17(35), pages 361-408, October.
    2. Martin Beck & Bernd Fitzenberger, 2004. "Changes in Union Membership Over Time: A Panel Analysis for West Germany," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 18(3), pages 329-362, September.
    3. Bernd Fitzenberger & Karsten Kohn & Qingwei Wang, 2011. "The erosion of union membership in Germany: determinants, densities, decompositions," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(1), pages 141-165, January.
    4. Jelle Visser, 2002. "Why Fewer Workers Join Unions in Europe: A Social Custom Explanation of Membership Trends," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 40(3), pages 403-430, September.
    5. Corneo, Giacomo G., 1997. "The theory of the open shop trade union reconsidered," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 71-84, March.
    6. Naylor, Robin & Raaum, Oddbjorn, 1993. "The Open Shop Union, Wages, and Management Opposition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(4), pages 589-604, October.
    7. Booth, Alison L & Chatterji, Monojit, 1995. "Union Membership and Wage Bargaining When Membership is Not Compulsory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 345-360, March.
    8. Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2005. "Who Are the Workers Who Never Joined a Union? Empirical Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 1658, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Daniele Checchi & Jelle Visser, 2002. "Pattern persistence in european trade union density," Departmental Working Papers 2002-01, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
    10. Addison, John T. & Bellmann, Lutz & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "The reform of the German works constitution act: a critical assessment," Discussion Papers 16, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    11. Laszlo Goerke & Markus Pannenberg, 2004. "Norm-Based Trade Union Membership: Evidence for Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 5(4), pages 481-504, November.
    12. George A. Akerlof, 1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of which Unemployment may be One Consequence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-775.
    13. Holmlund, Bertil & Lundborg, Per, 1999. "Wage bargaining, union membership, and the organization of unemployment insurance," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 397-415, September.
    14. Anke Hassel, 1999. "The Erosion of the German System of Industrial Relations," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 37(3), pages 483-505, September.
    15. Booth, Alison L & Chatterji, Monojit, 1993. "Reputation, Membership and Wages in Open Shop Trade Union," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(1), pages 23-41, January.
    16. Jones, Stephen R G & McKenna, C J, 1994. "A Dynamic Model of Union Membership and Employment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 61(242), pages 179-189, May.
    17. Giacomo Corneo, 1993. "Semi-unionized bargaining with endogenous membership and management opposition," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 57(2), pages 169-188, June.
    18. Schnabel, Claus, 2002. "Determinants of trade union membership," Discussion Papers 15, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    19. William H. Greene, 1998. "Gender Economics Courses in Liberal Arts Colleges: Further Results," The Journal of Economic Education, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 291-300, January.
    20. Naylor, Robin & Cripps, Martin, 1993. "An economic theory of the open shop trade union," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1599-1620, December.
    21. Goerke, Laszlo, 1997. "An Open Shop, Wage Bargaining, and Taxation--A Note," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(4), pages 651-657, October.
    22. Petri Böckerman & Roope Uusitalo, 2006. "Erosion of the Ghent System and Union Membership Decline: Lessons from Finland," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 44(2), pages 283-303, June.
    23. Moreton, David, 1999. "A Model of Labour Productivity and Union Density in British Private Sector Unionised Establishments," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(2), pages 322-344, April.
    24. Wagner, Joachim, 1990. "Gewerkschaftsmitgliedschaft und Arbeitseinkommen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine ökonometrische Analyse mit Individualdaten," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-155, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    General Act on Equal Treatment; job adverts; hiring; discrimination; expressive law;

    JEL classification:

    • M51 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • K31 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Labor Law

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rai:indbez:doi_10.1688/1862-0035_indb_2013_01_bauhoff. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rainer Hampp). General contact details of provider: http://www.hampp-verlag.de/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.