IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pid/journl/v38y1999i4p739-754.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Pakistan’s Ranking in Social Development: Have We Always Been Backward?

Author

Listed:
  • Aisha Ghaus-Pasha

    (Social Policy and Development Centre, Karachi.)

  • Naeem Ahmed

    (Social Policy and Development Centre, Karachi.)

Abstract

Consensus is emerging between development thinkers and practitioners that social progress is a necessary pre-condition for sustained economic growth. Social development leads to higher levels of literacy, better health standards and overall improvement in the society’s living conditions. In fact, empirical evidence suggests that there is a two-way relationship between economic growth and social development [Ghaus-Pasha et al. (1998)]. Economic growth leads to higher revenues for government and higher per capita income, encouraging both public and private spendings on human development. Improvements in social indicators feedback as higher economic growth through enhanced productivity for labour and capital. In other words, well-developed human capital makes a significant contribution to economic growth which, in turn, offers improved welfare and better living conditions. However, if there is a breakdown in this chain and economic development is not translated into social development, then the pace of economic development eventually suffers. Pakistan is an example of a country where this chain has broken. Despite moderate economic growth of about 5 percent during the last decade or so, the state of social indicators leaves a lot to be desired. Currently, the female literacy rate is 33 percent, being somewhat higher for males at 56 percent; primary school enrolment for females is 55 percent, for males 78 percent; and infant mortality rate is 105 out of 1000. Today, Pakistan is ranked 138 in the human development index by the UNDP (1999) among 174 countries. The purpose of this paper is to see the state of social development in Pakistan in the international context.

Suggested Citation

  • Aisha Ghaus-Pasha & Naeem Ahmed, 1999. "Pakistan’s Ranking in Social Development: Have We Always Been Backward?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 739-754.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:38:y:1999:i:4:p:739-754
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/1999/Volume4/739-754.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. A.F. Aisha Ghaus & Hafiz A. Pasha & Rafia Ghaus, 1996. "Social Development Ranking of Districts of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 593-614.
    2. Hafiz A. PASHA & Tariq HASAN*, 1982. "Development Ranking Of Districts Of Pakistan," Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, Applied Economics Research Centre, vol. 1(2), pages 157-192.
    3. Hafiz A. Pasha & Salman Malik & Haroon Jamal, 1990. "The Changing Profile Of Regional Development In Pakistan," Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, Applied Economics Research Centre, vol. 9(1), pages 1-26.
    4. Adelman, Irma & Dalton, George, 1971. "A Factor Analysis of Modernisation in Village India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 81(323), pages 563-579, September.
    5. Haroon Jamal & Salman Malik, 1988. "Shifting Patterns in Developmental Rank Ordering: A Case Study of the Districts of Sind Province," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 159-182.
    6. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2003. "The Changing Profile of Regional Inequality," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 113-123.
    7. Farhad Noorbakhsh, 1998. "The human development index: some technical issues and alternative indices," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(5), pages 589-605.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nadeen Ihsan & Babar Aziz, 2019. "A Multidimensional Analysis of Quality of Life: Pakistan’s Context," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 142(1), pages 201-227, February.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Danish Wadud Alam & Amjad Amin, 2018. "Quality of Life and Well-Being Ranking of Selected Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 137(2), pages 527-537, June.
    2. Samina KHALIL*, 2014. "Research Note:NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE:The Case of Pakistan in Global Perspective," Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, Applied Economics Research Centre, vol. 24(1), pages 87-106.
    3. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2003. "The Changing Profile of Regional Inequality," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 113-123.
    4. A.F. Aisha Ghaus & Hafiz A. Pasha & Rafia Ghaus, 1996. "Social Development Ranking of Districts of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 593-614.
    5. Uzma Afzal, 2010. "The Unchanging Profile of Development: A Historical Study of the Punjab 1961–2008," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 841-862.
    6. Wasim, Summerina & Munir, Kashif, 2017. "Regional Disparity and Decentralization in Pakistan: A Decomposition Analysis," MPRA Paper 83444, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Hasan, Lubna, 2007. "On Measuring the Complexity of Urban Living," MPRA Paper 7413, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Hyder, Kalim & Sikander, Muhammad Usman, 2007. "Poverty, Income Distribution and Social Development in Lahore," MPRA Paper 30531, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2010.
    9. Ghosh, sudeshna, 2017. "Education Attainment Forecasting and Economic Inequality United States," MPRA Paper 89712, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Jeni Klugman & Francisco Rodríguez & Hyung-Jin Choi, 2011. "The HDI 2010: new controversies, old critiques," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(2), pages 249-288, June.
    11. Rui Fragoso & Vladimir Bushenkov & Carlos Marques, 2012. "Integrated Water Management Using Feasible Goals Method and Interactive Decision Maps: The Case of Odivelas Irrigation," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2012_07, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
    12. Verity Watson & Chris Dibben & Matt Cox & Iain Atherton & Matt Sutton & Mandy Ryan, 2019. "Testing the Expert Based Weights Used in the UK’s Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) Against Three Preference-Based Methods," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 144(3), pages 1055-1074, August.
    13. Serdar Ozturk & Seher Suluk, 2020. "The granger causality relationship between human development and economic growth: The case of Norway," International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), Center for the Strategic Studies in Business and Finance, vol. 9(6), pages 143-153, October.
    14. Wolff, Hendrik & Chong, Howard & Auffhammer, Maximilian, 2008. "Consequences of Data Error in Aggregate Indicators: Evidence from the Human Development Index," CUDARE Working Papers 6502, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    15. Massimo Buscema & Pier Luigi Sacco & Guido Ferilli, 2016. "Multidimensional Similarities at a Global Scale: An Approach to Mapping Open Society Orientations," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(3), pages 1239-1258, September.
    16. Elizabeth Stanton, 2007. "The Human Development Index: A History," Working Papers wp127, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    17. Giulia Greco, 2018. "Setting the Weights: The Women’s Capabilities Index for Malawi," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 135(2), pages 457-478, January.
    18. Espinoza-Delgado, José & López-Laborda, Julio, 2017. "Nicaragua: evolución de la pobreza multidimensional, 2001-2009," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), April.
    19. Tauhidur Rahman, 2007. "Measuring the well-being across countries," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(11), pages 779-783.
    20. Adams, Richard H., 2002. "Precautionary saving from different sources of income - evidence from rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2761, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:38:y:1999:i:4:p:739-754. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Khurram Iqbal (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.