IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Unsecured Credit Supply, Credit Cycles, and Regulation


  • Song Han
  • Benjamin J. Keys
  • Geng Li


This paper explores the dynamics of unsecured credit supply over the recent credit cycle and around the passage of the CARD Act. We examine a unique data set of over 200,000 credit card mail solicitations to a representative sample of households and introduce credit card offers as a direct, informative measure of supply of such credit. Contrasting personal credit card offer dynamics before and after the passage of the CARD Act with those of personal loans, auto loans, and corporate credit cards, we find that lenders reduced credit supply of personal credit cards to nonprime borrowers in response to the CARD Act. Our analysis highlights the importance of separately examining supply and demand responses to assess the unintended consequences of regulation. Received January 30, 2016; editorial decision August 9, 2017 by Editor Philip Strahan.

Suggested Citation

  • Song Han & Benjamin J. Keys & Geng Li, 2018. "Unsecured Credit Supply, Credit Cycles, and Regulation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(3), pages 1184-1217.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:31:y:2018:i:3:p:1184-1217.

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Tal Gross & Raymond Kluender & Feng Liu & Matthew J. Notowidigdo & Jialan Wang, 2020. "The Economic Consequences of Bankruptcy Reform," Working Papers 2020-164, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    2. Keys, Benjamin J. & Wang, Jialan, 2019. "Minimum payments and debt paydown in consumer credit cards," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 131(3), pages 528-548.
    3. Sarah Miller & Cindy K. Soo, 2020. "Does Increasing Access to Formal Credit Reduce Payday Borrowing?," NBER Working Papers 27783, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Yiwei Dou & Geng Li & Joshua Ronen, 2019. "Does Price Regulation Affect Competition? Evidence from Credit Card Solicitations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-018, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Erik Dolson & Julapa Jagtiani, 2021. "Which Lenders Are More Likely to Reach Out to Underserved Consumers: Banks versus Fintechs versus Other Nonbanks?," Working Papers 21-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    6. Laura Marcela Capera Romero, 2021. "The Effects of Usury Ceilings on Consumers Welfare: Evidence from the Microcredit Market in Colombia," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 21-055/IV, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Yiwei Dou & Julapa Jagtiani & Ramain Quinn Maingi & Joshua Ronen, 2020. "The Credit Card Act and Consumer Debt Structure," Working Papers 20-32, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:31:y:2018:i:3:p:1184-1217.. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Oxford University Press or Christopher F. Baum (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.