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A Viable Gold Standard Requires Flexible Monetary and Fiscal Policy

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  • Willem H. Buiter

Abstract

The paper studies an idealized gold standard in a two-country setting. Without flexible national domestic credit expansion (dce) policies which offset the effect of money demand shocks on international gold reserves, the gold standard collapses with certainty in finite time through a speculative selling attack against one of the currencies. Various policies for postponing a collapse are considered.When a responsive dce policy eliminates the danger of a run on a country's reserves, the exogenous shocks disturbing the system which previously were reflected in reserve flows, now show up in the behaviour of the public debt. Unless the primary (non-interest) government deficit is permitted to respond to these shocks, the public debt is likely to rise (or fall) to unsustainable levels. For the idealized gold standard analysed in the paper, viability can be achieved only through the active and flexible use of monetary and fiscal policy.

Suggested Citation

  • Willem H. Buiter, 1989. "A Viable Gold Standard Requires Flexible Monetary and Fiscal Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 56(1), pages 101-117.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:restud:v:56:y:1989:i:1:p:101-117.
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.2307/2297752
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    1. Jean-Michel Grandmont & Yves Younes, 1972. "On the Role of Money and the Existence of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(3), pages 355-372.
    2. Drew Fudenberg & David Levine, 2008. "Subgame–Perfect Equilibria of Finite– and Infinite–Horizon Games," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: A Long-Run Collaboration On Long-Run Games, chapter 1, pages 3-20 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Jean-Michel Grandmont & Yves Younes, 1973. "On the Efficiency of a Monetary Equilibrium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(2), pages 149-165.
    4. Bewley, Truman, 1983. "A Difficulty with the Optimum Quantity of Money," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1485-1504, September.
    5. Grandmont, Jean-Michel & Laroque, Guy, 1973. "Money in the pure consumption loan model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 382-395, August.
    6. Cass, David & Okuno, Masahiro & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1979. "The role of money in supporting the pareto optimality of competitive equilibrium in consumption-loan type models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 41-80, February.
    7. Woodford, Michael, 1986. "Stationary sunspot equilibria in a finance constrained economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 128-137, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Willem H. Buiter & Paolo A. Pesenti, 1990. "Rational Speculative Bubbles in an Exchange Rate Target Zone," NBER Working Papers 3467, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Daniel, Betty C, 2001. "A Fiscal Theory of Currency Crises," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 969-988, November.
    3. Dumas, Bernard & Svensson, Lars E. O., 1994. "How long do unilateral target zones last?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 467-481, May.
    4. Buiter, Willem H., 1995. "Macroeconomic policy during a transition to monetary union," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20701, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    5. Michael D. Bordo, 1993. "The gold standard, Bretton Woods and other monetary regimes: a historical appraisal," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 123-191.
    6. Michael D. Bordo & Barry Eichengreen, 1998. "The Rise and Fall of a Barbarous Relic: The Role of Gold in the International Monetary SYstem," NBER Working Papers 6436, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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