Travel Time Reliability in Vehicle Routing and Scheduling with Time Windows
This paper presents calibration of the Vehicle Routing and scheduling Problems with Time Windows-Probabilistic (VRPTW-P) model which takes into account the uncertainty of travel times. Probe vehicle data of travel times were obtained from usual operation of pickup-delivery trucks in South Osaka area. The optimal solution of the VRPTW-P model resulted in reducing total cost, running times and CO 2 , NOx and Particle Materials (PM) emissions compared with the usual operation. This is attributed to better routing of VRPTW-P to choose more reliable roads. Therefore, VRPTW-P can contribute to establish efficient and environmentally friendly delivery systems in urban area. Copyright Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006
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