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Gender and Commercial Science: Women’s Patenting in the Life Sciences

Author

Listed:
  • Kjersten Whittington

    ()

  • Laurel Smith-Doerr

    ()

Abstract

Traditional research on gender differences in productivity focuses on academic scientists, and rarely investigates outcomes other than publications. We investigate gender disparities in commercial outcomes, for scientists in both the academic and industrial sectors. Using a unique combination of career history data and patenting information across a period of two decades, we present descriptive statistics and graphical trends of male and female commercialization. Empirical evidence indicates that female scientists engage in and produce less commercial work then their male counterparts, and that the degree of disparity remains constant across time. The quality and impact of women’s commercial work remains the same or better than that of men scientists, however. These results imply that a necessary focus for future work is to understand the personal, structural, and organizational reasons for the filtering process which leads to such a small proportion of female inventors. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Suggested Citation

  • Kjersten Whittington & Laurel Smith-Doerr, 2005. "Gender and Commercial Science: Women’s Patenting in the Life Sciences," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 355-370, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jtecht:v:30:y:2005:i:4:p:355-370
    DOI: 10.1007/s10961-005-2581-5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hall, B. & Jaffe, A. & Trajtenberg, M., 2001. "The NBER Patent Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools," Papers 2001-29, Tel Aviv.
    2. Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg & Michael S. Fogarty, 2000. "The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees," NBER Working Papers 7631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Manuel Trajtenberg, 1990. "Product Innovations, Price Indices and the (Mis)Measurement of Economic Performance," NBER Working Papers 3261, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Meng, Yu, 2016. "Collaboration patterns and patenting: Exploring gender distinctions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 56-67.
    2. Kjersten Bunker Whittington, 2009. "Patterns of Male and Female Scientific Dissemination in Public and Private Science," NBER Chapters,in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 195-228 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. repec:spr:scient:v:115:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s11192-018-2701-2 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:spr:scient:v:87:y:2011:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-011-0369-y is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Scott Shane & Sharon Dolmans & Joseph Jankowski & Isabelle Reymen & A. Romme, 2015. "Academic entrepreneurship: Which inventors do technology licensing officers prefer for spinoffs?," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 273-292, April.
    6. Tartari, Valentina & Salter, Ammon, 2015. "The engagement gap:," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(6), pages 1176-1191.
    7. Yannu Zheng & Olof Ejermo, 2015. "How do the foreign-born perform in inventive activity? Evidence from Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 659-695, July.
    8. Hunt, Jennifer & Garant, Jean-Philippe & Herman, Hannah & Munroe, David J., 2012. "Why Don't Women Patent?," IZA Discussion Papers 6886, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. repec:spr:jhappi:v:18:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s10902-016-9801-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:spr:scient:v:83:y:2010:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-009-0131-x is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Hunt, Jennifer & Garant, Jean-Philippe & Herman, Hannah & Munroe, David J., 2013. "Why are women underrepresented amongst patentees?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 831-843.
    12. Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi & Seyed Kamran Bagheri, 2015. "Gender Gap in Patenting Activities: Evidence from Iran," LEM Papers Series 2015/22, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    13. repec:kap:jtecht:v:42:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10961-016-9543-y is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang & Osborn, Evan, 2014. "Does gender really matter? An analysis of Jena University scientists collaboration with industry and non-profit-partners," Jena Contributions to Economic Research 2014/2, University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of Business Administration.
    15. Paula Stephan & Asmaa El-Ganainy, 2007. "The entrepreneurial puzzle: explaining the gender gap," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 32(5), pages 475-487, October.
    16. repec:spr:scient:v:80:y:2009:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-008-2101-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Gema Lax Martínez & Julio Raffo & Kaori Saito, 2016. "Identifying the Gender of PCT inventors," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 33, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
    18. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:2:p:511-526 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. repec:spr:scient:v:114:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2607-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Walter, Sascha G. & Schmidt, Arne & Walter, Achim, 2010. "The Patenting Behavior of Academic Founders," EconStor Preprints 37083, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
    21. Abreu, Maria & Grinevich, Vadim, 2013. "The nature of academic entrepreneurship in the UK: Widening the focus on entrepreneurial activities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 408-422.

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