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A Periodic Review Inventory System with Emergency Replenishments


  • George Tagaras

    () (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece)

  • Dimitrios Vlachos

    () (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki, Greece)


This paper proposes and analyzes a periodic review inventory system with two replenishment modes. Regular orders are placed periodically following a base stock policy on inventory position, and arrive at the stocking location after a deterministic lead time. The location also has the option of placing emergency orders, characterized by a shorter lead time but higher acquisition cost, in case of imminent stockouts. Thus, at some appropriate time in the replenishment cycle, the necessity and size of an emergency order is determined according to a base stock policy on net stock. The timing of the emergency order is such that this order arrives and can be used to satisfy the demand in the time period just before the arrival of a regular order, when the likelihood of a stockout is highest. An approximate cost model is developed which can easily be optimized with respect to the order-up-to parameters. This model is used as the basis for a heuristic algorithm, which leads to solutions that are very close to the exact optimal solutions determined through simulation. It is shown that the proposed system offers substantial cost savings relative to a system without the emergency replenishment option.

Suggested Citation

  • George Tagaras & Dimitrios Vlachos, 2001. "A Periodic Review Inventory System with Emergency Replenishments," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(3), pages 415-429, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:47:y:2001:i:3:p:415-429
    DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.47.3.415.9770

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Johansen, Soren Glud & Thorstenson, Anders, 1998. "An inventory model with Poisson demands and emergency orders," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 275-289, September.
    2. Yoichiro Fukuda, 1964. "Optimal Policies for the Inventory Problem with Negotiable Leadtime," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(4), pages 690-708, July.
    3. Kamran Moinzadeh & Steven Nahmias, 1988. "A Continuous Review Model for an Inventory System with Two Supply Modes," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(6), pages 761-773, June.
    4. Chiang, Chi & Gutierrez, Genaro J., 1996. "A periodic review inventory system with two supply modes," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 527-547, November.
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    Inventory; Periodic Review; Emergency Ordering;


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