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Welfare benefits in kind and income distribution


  • Maria Evandrou
  • Jane Falkingham
  • John Hills
  • Julian Le Grand


This article explores the value to households in different income groups of benefits from public spending on education, the National Health Service and subsidies to local authority housing. Its results are drawn from secondary analysis of the 1987 General Household Survey (GHS). The paper compares these findings with those which the Central Statistical Office (CSO, 1990) derived from the 1987 Family Expenditure Survey (FES). As well as using the more detailed information given by the GHS on use of health services and higher education than by the FES, we also apply some different methodological approaches from the CSO, including the allocation of higher education for students living away from home to their households of origin and the use of estimates of ‘economic’ housing subsidies. The CSO’s results are summarised in Section II, together with a discussion of some limitations of its approach, and the advantages (in some respects) of using GHS data. We present our main findings of distribution by income group in Section III. A more detailed discussion of the results for the separate areas of education, the National Health Service and housing subsidies follows in Section IV. We summarise our results in Section V and make some suggestions for future work in this area. For a more detailed account of the findings, including an analysis of distribution by socio-economic group, see Evandrou et al. (1992).

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  • Maria Evandrou & Jane Falkingham & John Hills & Julian Le Grand, 1993. "Welfare benefits in kind and income distribution," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 14(1), pages 57-76, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:ifs:fistud:v:14:y:1993:i:1:p:57-76

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David M. Knox, 1990. "The taxation support of occupational pensions: a long-term view," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 29-43, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paulus, Alari & Sutherland, Holly & Tsakloglou, Panos, 2009. "The distributional impact of in kind public benefits in European countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM10/09, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Stockhausen, Maximilian, 2016. "The Impact of Private and Public Childcare Provision on the Distribution of Children's Incomes in Germany," Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145638, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Maximilian Stockhausen, 2017. "The Distribution of Economic Resources to Children in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 901, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    4. Christos Koutsampelas & Panos Tsakloglou, 2012. "The distribution of full income in Greece," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 03-2012, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    5. Rolf Aaberge & Audun Langørgen & Petter Lindgren, 2013. "The distributional impact of public services in," Discussion Papers 746, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    6. Christos Koutsampelas & Panos Tsakloglou, 2013. "The distribution of full income in Greece," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 311-330, March.
    7. Christos Koutsampelas & Panos Tsakloglou, 2011. "Short-run distributional effects of public education in Greece," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 12-2011, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    8. Aaberge, Rolf & Bhuller, Manudeep & Langørgen, Audun & Mogstad, Magne, 2010. "The distributional impact of public services when needs differ," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 549-562, October.
    9. Panos TSAKLOGLOU & Christos KOUTSAMBELAS, "undated". "Distributional Effects of Public Education Transfers in Greece," EcoMod2008 23800144, EcoMod.
    10. Amedeo Spadaro & Lucia Mangiavacchi & Ignacio Moral-Arce & Marta Adiego-Estella & Angela Blanco-Moreno, 2013. "Evaluating the redistributive impact of public health expenditure using an insurance value approach," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 14(5), pages 775-787, October.
    11. Disney, Richard & Whitehouse, Edward, 2001. "Cross-country comparisons of pensioners’ incomes," MPRA Paper 16345, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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