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The changing contribution of unpaid work to the total standard of living in sustainable development scenarios

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  • Joachim H. Spangenberg

Abstract

In Europe since the 1950s, average working hours have declined steadily and the time available for unpaid work has increased. Nonetheless, its contribution to the total standard of living has not been taken into account so far, although the majority of working hours in Germany and Europe is in unpaid work. The qualitative integration of unpaid work in the new framework concept of "mixed work" is introduced as an alternative more appropriate for the emerging new patterns of working life than the traditional concept of lifelong, full-time "normal work". Two quantitative sustainability scenario simulations have been evaluated concerning their impact on unpaid work. Depending on the kind of politics simulated (cost cutting, growth, integrated sustainability), the future contribution of unpaid work to the total standard of living can decline, stagnate, or increase. The implications of different policies on time budgets are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Joachim H. Spangenberg, 2002. "The changing contribution of unpaid work to the total standard of living in sustainable development scenarios," International Journal of Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(4), pages 461-475.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijsusd:v:5:y:2002:i:4:p:461-475
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    Cited by:

    1. Joachim H. Spangenberg, 2002. "Institutional sustainability indicators: an analysis of the institutions in Agenda 21 and a draft set of indicators for monitoring their effectivity," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 103-115.
    2. Mann, Stefan & Wüstemann, Henry, 2012. "The fading scope of labour – remarks about the lost rationale of a common term," MPRA Paper 39401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Joachim H. Spangenberg, 2004. "Reconciling sustainability and growth: criteria, indicators, policies," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 74-86.
    4. Bockermann, Andreas & Meyer, Bernd & Omann, Ines & Spangenberg, Joachim H., 2005. "Modelling sustainability: Comparing an econometric (PANTA RHEI) and a systems dynamics model (SuE)," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 189-210, March.

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