IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations on Forming Country Image and Developing the Country Brand Using Public Diplomacy


  • Mehmet Turker
  • Zafer Konakli


Country image and nation branding provide a competitive advantage for small and medium-sized enterprises in their internationalization. This paper analyzes the influence of Turkish nongovernmental organizations on forming country image of Turkey and developing the country brand using public diplomacy in the African continent. The published interviews and statements of Turkish and African politicians, business people and intellectuals argue that these organizations are effectively using public diplomacy to create the country brand. This paper focuses on the most active organization, the Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey (TUSKON) which supports to its members in communicating with their potential customers in several occasions, and having a differentiating statement and a competitive advantage by promoting the brand image of the country. This civil society support is significant, especially for the small and medium enterprises of developing countries, when considered the weak international image and reputation of these countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Mehmet Turker & Zafer Konakli, 2016. "Influence of Nongovernmental Organizations on Forming Country Image and Developing the Country Brand Using Public Diplomacy," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 6(1), pages 221-235, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:hur:ijarbs:v:6:y:2016:i:1:p:221-235

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Helen Lawton Smith & Saverio Romeo & Malika Virahsawmy, 2012. "Business and Professional Networks: Scope and Outcomes in Oxfordshire," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 44(8), pages 1801-1818, August.
    2. Bennett, Robert J., 1995. "The Logic of Local Business Associations: an Analysis of Voluntary Chambers of Commerce," Journal of Public Policy, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 251-279, September.
    3. Robert Newbery & Johannes Sauer & Matthew Gorton & Jeremy Phillipson & Jane Atterton, 2013. "Determinants of the Performance of Business Associations in Rural Settlements in the United Kingdom: An Analysis of Members' Satisfaction and Willingness-to-Pay for Association Survival," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 45(4), pages 967-985, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Employers’ Organizations; internationalization of SME; country image; public diplomacy; nation brand;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • L31 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs; Social Entrepreneurship


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hur:ijarbs:v:6:y:2016:i:1:p:221-235. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hassan Danial Aslam). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.