IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

On Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Networks in a Multilayered Reality: Clashing Interests in the Ethnic Enclave of Lloret de Mar

  • Hugo Valenzuela-García


    (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • José Luis Molina


    (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Miranda J. Lubbers


    (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Alejandro García-Macías


    (Communication Department, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20100, Mexico)

  • Judith Pampalona


    (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Juergen Lerner


    (Algorithmic Group, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78464, Germany)

Registered author(s):

    Over the last decade, the tourist destination of Lloret de Mar (Gerona, Spain) has experienced an increasing concentration of souvenir stores owned by a population of Indian origin. Although Lloret de Mar is already a multicultural spot, Indians represent a small minority in Spain. In order to explain such a remarkable concentration and economic specialization in a low profit sector, we suggest the emergence of an ethnic enclave based on a triple articulation (entrepreneurs, employees and the local community). Our findings provide support for the mixed-embeddedness hypothesis, which contends that ethnic entrepreneurs in Europe need to rely on both the co-ethnic social networks and the linkages with the host society in order to run their business successfully. However, differential degrees of social integration amongst Indians themselves—clearly shown by the composition of their social networks—and between local dwellers and Indians suggest confronting interests amongst social agents in a highly complex and micro-social touristic site undergoing deep economic crisis. Throughout, a mixed-methods approach in the paper reveals the unequal social structure of the enclave, providing a better theoretical understanding of the difficulties and backgrounds in which minority migrant groups develop and expand their social relationships in the “host society”.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Societies.

    Volume (Year): 4 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 1 (February)
    Pages: 85-85

    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:4:y:2014:i:1:p:85-104:d:33351
    Contact details of provider: Web page:

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Trevor Jones & Monder Ram & Nick Theodorakopoulos, 2010. "Transnationalism as a Force for Ethnic Minority Enterprise? The Case of Somalis in Leicester," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 565-585, 09.
    2. Casey Warman, 2006. "Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Earnings Growth," Working Papers 1261, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:4:y:2014:i:1:p:85-104:d:33351. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.