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On Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Networks in a Multilayered Reality: Clashing Interests in the Ethnic Enclave of Lloret de Mar

Author

Listed:
  • Hugo Valenzuela-García

    () (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • José Luis Molina

    () (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Miranda J. Lubbers

    () (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Alejandro García-Macías

    () (Communication Department, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20100, Mexico)

  • Judith Pampalona

    () (Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08295, Spain)

  • Juergen Lerner

    () (Algorithmic Group, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78464, Germany)

Abstract

Over the last decade, the tourist destination of Lloret de Mar (Gerona, Spain) has experienced an increasing concentration of souvenir stores owned by a population of Indian origin. Although Lloret de Mar is already a multicultural spot, Indians represent a small minority in Spain. In order to explain such a remarkable concentration and economic specialization in a low profit sector, we suggest the emergence of an ethnic enclave based on a triple articulation (entrepreneurs, employees and the local community). Our findings provide support for the mixed-embeddedness hypothesis, which contends that ethnic entrepreneurs in Europe need to rely on both the co-ethnic social networks and the linkages with the host society in order to run their business successfully. However, differential degrees of social integration amongst Indians themselves—clearly shown by the composition of their social networks—and between local dwellers and Indians suggest confronting interests amongst social agents in a highly complex and micro-social touristic site undergoing deep economic crisis. Throughout, a mixed-methods approach in the paper reveals the unequal social structure of the enclave, providing a better theoretical understanding of the difficulties and backgrounds in which minority migrant groups develop and expand their social relationships in the “host society”.

Suggested Citation

  • Hugo Valenzuela-García & José Luis Molina & Miranda J. Lubbers & Alejandro García-Macías & Judith Pampalona & Juergen Lerner, 2014. "On Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Networks in a Multilayered Reality: Clashing Interests in the Ethnic Enclave of Lloret de Mar," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-20, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:4:y:2014:i:1:p:85-104:d:33351
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Casey Warman, 2007. "Ethnic enclaves and immigrant earnings growth," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(2), pages 401-422, May.
    2. Trevor Jones & Monder Ram & Nick Theodorakopoulos, 2010. "Transnationalism as a Force for Ethnic Minority Enterprise? The Case of Somalis in Leicester," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 565-585, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    ethnic enclave; social integration; local conflict; personal networks; social ties; Lloret de Mar; transnationalism;

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • P - Economic Systems
    • P0 - Economic Systems - - General
    • P1 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies
    • P3 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
    • P4 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics

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