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Assessing the Case for Retail CBDCs: Central Banks’ Considerations


  • Fumiko Hayashi
  • Ying Lei Toh


Many central banks around the world have been researching, experimenting, or developing central bank digital currencies (CBDCs). Although central banks in several emerging markets and developing economies have implemented or plan to implement a general-purpose, or retail, CBDC to promote financial inclusion and improve their payment systems, central banks in many advanced economies have not yet found a compelling case for a retail CBDC.

Suggested Citation

  • Fumiko Hayashi & Ying Lei Toh, 2022. "Assessing the Case for Retail CBDCs: Central Banks’ Considerations," Payments System Research Briefing, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue May 26, 2, pages 1-7, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedkpb:94353

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bindseil, Ulrich & Panetta, Fabio & Terol, Ignacio, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currency: functional scope, pricing and controls," Occasional Paper Series 286, European Central Bank.
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    More about this item


    Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs); Payments; Central banking;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies


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