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Europeanization beyond Europe


  • Schimmelfennig, Frank


This article reviews the literature on Europeanization beyond the group of EU member, “quasi-member” and applicant states. It uses the analysis of Europeanization in applicant states as a theoretical starting point to ask if, how and under which conditions we can expect domestic effects of European integration beyond Europe. Focusing on Europeanization effects in the areas of regionalism, democracy and human rights, and the literature on the European Neighborhood Policy in particular, the article collects findings on the strategies and instruments as well as the impact and effectiveness of the EU. The general conclusion to be drawn from the theoretical and empirical literature reviewed is one of low consistency and impact. Full online version available at

Suggested Citation

  • Schimmelfennig, Frank, . "Europeanization beyond Europe," Living Reviews in European Governance (LREG), Institute for European integration research (EIF).
  • Handle: RePEc:erp:lregxx:p0014

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    Cited by:

    1. Tosun, Jale, 2012. "Emergency oil stocks in Southeastern and Eastern Europe: What explains variation in convergence towards the EU model?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 417-426.
    2. Koch, Svea, 2015. "A Typology of Political Conditionality Beyond Aid: Conceptual Horizons Based on Lessons from the European Union," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 97-108.


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