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Factores socioeconómicos explicativos de los resultados escolares en la educación secundaria en Chile

  • Mizala, Alejandra

    (Centro de Economía Aplicada, Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile.)

  • Romaguera, Pilar

    (Centro de Economía Aplicada, Departamento de Ingeniería Indistrial, Facultad de ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile.)

The aim of this paper is to examine the educational, institutional and social variables that explain students' educational achievement in secondary schools in Chile. It also analyzes the performance of the different types of schools in the country. We estimate and educational production function using data from the standardized performance test, known as the, SIMCE Test, taken by 2nd year students in 1998, and data from the Ministry of Education. First, we estimate the educational production function at the school level, using the average score of each high school. Specifically, we analyze the difference between the expected score of the school, and its effective score on the test. The expected score is predicted by the estimated production function, therefore, it takes into account the school and its students characteristics. Then, we estimate an educational production function using students' individual data. This is the first time we can use individual data to estimate the effects of different factors on students' achievement. This was possible because at the same time the SIMCE test was given in 1998, the Education Ministry applied a socioeconomic survey to all the families of the students involved. This information allows us to investigate the impact of different educational inputs on students' achievement. The paper concludes that one of the main challenges facing the educational policy in the coming years is to reduce the existing gap in educational performance between different types of school at the secondary level. It is necessary to attain more equity in the Chilean educational system, this means that the learning process has to accelerate in schools where students from low-income families are concentrate. Moreover, it is necessary to avoid the segmentation, which occurs because students from low socioeconomic level tend to concentrate in specific type of schools. It is also important to emphasize that closing the gap in education quality must not imply to neglect those schools publicly financed with high educational achievement, since they are a key factor in social mobility. // El objetivo de este estudio es indagar las variables educativas, institucionales y sociales que están en la base de los logros educativos de las escuelas de enseñanza secundaria en Chile y de las diferencias de resultados entre ellas. Utilizando datos de la prueba SIMCE de segundo año de enseñanza secundaria de 1998 e información del Mineduc se estima una función de producción educacional para las escuelas o establecimientos de enseñanza secundaria del país. En primer lugar, se realiza una estimación de establecimientos educacionales utilizando el puntaje promedio en la prueba SIMCE de cada uno de ellos. En particular, se analiza la diferencia entre el puntaje esperado de cada establecimiento, dadas sus características y de sus alumnos, el puntaje que efectivamente obtuvieron en la prueba. En segundo lugar, se estima una función de producción educacional utilizando datos de alumnos; esta es la primera estimación de una función de producción que se realiza en Chile con datos individuales, ya que a partir de esta prueba SIMCE se recogió información socioeconómica de cada uno de los estudiantes que se sometieron a la prueba. Esta estimaciòn permite analizar el efecto de los diferentes insumos educativos en el logro de los estudiantes. El estudio muestra que uno de los desafíos fundamentales de la política educacional en los próximos años es reducir la brecha en el logro educativo entre los distintos tipos de establecimientos de enseñanza secundaria. Es necesario lograr una mayor equidad, lo que implica que los aprendizajes deben mejorar más aceleradamente en los establecimientos que atienden a una población estudiantil de menor nivel socioeconómico. Asimismo, hay que evitar la segmentación que se tiende a producir al concentrarse los estudiantes con mayores dificultades económicas en determinados tipos de establecimientos educativos. Es importante en este punto destacar que el cierre de la brecha en la calidad educativa no debe implicar un descuido de los establecimientos con financiación pública que tiene un alto logro educativo, pues son precisamente éstos los que desempeñan un papel fundamental en la movilidad social.

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Article provided by Fondo de Cultura Económica in its journal El Trimestre Económico.

Volume (Year): LXVIII (4) (2001)
Issue (Month): 272 (Otubre-diciembre)
Pages: 515-549

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Handle: RePEc:elt:journl:v:68:y:2001:i:272:p:515-549
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