IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan


  • Agha, Sohail


This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at 100 deaths per 1000 live births. The study shows that there is no evidence of a secular decline in infant mortality during the 1980s. Large differentials in infant survival by socio-economic factors and access to water and sanitation indicate that social and gender inequities are the underlying cause of the stagnation of infant mortality in Pakistan. Economic and social policies of earlier decades have resulted in tremendous disparities in wealth and access to resources in Pakistan. The low social, economic and legal status of women is intimately tied to the well-being of their children. Health interventions in Pakistan should be designed to reach the most under-served: women and children. Systematic evaluations of health interventions will be necessary to make informed decisions about health investments in the future.

Suggested Citation

  • Agha, Sohail, 2000. "The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 199-208, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:51:y:2000:i:2:p:199-208

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Rania Roushdy, 2004. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Egypt: Does Women’s Empowerment Lead to Greater Investments in Children?," Working Papers 0410, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 2004.
    2. Mamoon, Dawood & Arshed, Noman & Raza, Sidra, 2015. "Investments in Health and Education Help Save Lives," MPRA Paper 82495, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Social Policy and Population Section, Social Development Division, ESCAP., 2003. "Asia-Pacific Population Journal Volume 18, No. 1," Asia-Pacific Population Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 18(1), pages 1-78, November.
    4. Ali, Amjad & Bibi, Chan, 2016. "Determinants of Social Progress and its Scenarios under the role of Macroeconomic Instability: Empirics from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 72920, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Mandal, Biswajit, 2015. "Demand for Maternal health inputs in West Bengal-Inference from NFHS 3," MPRA Paper 68224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Ricardo Fuentes, Tobias Pfütze and Papa Seck, 2006. "Does Access to Water and Sanitation Affect Child Survival? A Five Country Analysis," Human Development Occasional Papers (1992-2007) HDOCPA-2006-04, Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:51:y:2000:i:2:p:199-208. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.