Mitigating shortage and distribution costs in damaged water networks
Recent events have sparked renewed interest in disaster mitigation for public infrastructures. Presidential Decision Directive 63 identifies water distribution as being among the most vital and vulnerable of our large-scale infrastructures. Water distribution networks are vulnerable to threats such as chemical and biological contamination, cyber attacks on computer-based management systems, and physical destruction from acts of nature and intentional attack. This research develops methods for configuring the undamaged portion of the water network to mitigate the consequences of physical destruction. The approach is to find a hydraulically feasible residual network that can be pressurized to meet the demand of a subset of demand sectors. Demand sectors not pressurized then receive water through truck distribution from pressurized sectors. The objective is to minimize weighted water shortage and water truck distribution costs by identifying sectors to pressurize along with an assignment of unpressurized sectors to pressurized sectors for water delivery by truck. The paper develops an optimization model, describes a solution method, and presents computational results for three example networks.
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