IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Optimization and sensitivity analysis of standalone hybrid energy systems for rural electrification: A case study of Iraq


  • Aziz, Ali Saleh
  • Tajuddin, Mohammad Faridun Naim
  • Adzman, Mohd Rafi
  • Azmi, Azralmukmin
  • Ramli, Makbul A.M.


Off-grid hybrid energy systems (HESs) have become more cost-effective and reliable than single-source systems for the electrification of rural areas. This paper presents a techno-economic and environmental analysis of different hybrid systems to supply electricity to a typical Iraqi rural village. The HOMER software is utilized for the optimization of the systems using the multi-year module, which has been overlooked in the literature thus far. The analysis shows that the PV/hydro/diesel/battery HES is the most economical option with a net present cost (NPC) of $113201, in addition to having acceptable technical and environmental performance levels. Throughout the project’s 20 year lifetime, PV electricity production is reduced by 9.1% while diesel electricity production, CO2 emissions and served load are increased by 90.8%, 91.7% and 8.8%, respectively. The NPC for the multi-year module shows an increment of 22.5% in comparison with that of the single year module. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis of some rarely reported parameters, such as water pipe losses, generator minimum load, battery roundtrip efficiency, battery setpoint state of charge, capacity shortage, PV capital cost multiplier and multi-year, demonstrated that variations in these parameters have significant effects on the system power flow and its economic analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Aziz, Ali Saleh & Tajuddin, Mohammad Faridun Naim & Adzman, Mohd Rafi & Azmi, Azralmukmin & Ramli, Makbul A.M., 2019. "Optimization and sensitivity analysis of standalone hybrid energy systems for rural electrification: A case study of Iraq," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 775-792.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:138:y:2019:i:c:p:775-792
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.004

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Sen, Rohit & Bhattacharyya, Subhes C., 2014. "Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 388-398.
    2. Heydari, Ali & Askarzadeh, Alireza, 2016. "Optimization of a biomass-based photovoltaic power plant for an off-grid application subject to loss of power supply probability concept," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 601-611.
    3. Abed, Fayadh M. & Al-Douri, Y. & Al-Shahery, Ghazy. M.Y., 2014. "Review on the energy and renewable energy status in Iraq: The outlooks," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 816-827.
    4. Rajbongshi, Rumi & Borgohain, Devashree & Mahapatra, Sadhan, 2017. "Optimization of PV-biomass-diesel and grid base hybrid energy systems for rural electrification by using HOMER," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 461-474.
    5. Fengchang Jiang & Haiyan Xie & Oliver Ellen, 2018. "Hybrid Energy System with Optimized Storage for Improvement of Sustainability in a Small Town," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-16, June.
    6. Bhandari, Binayak & Lee, Kyung-Tae & Lee, Caroline Sunyong & Song, Chul-Ki & Maskey, Ramesh K. & Ahn, Sung-Hoon, 2014. "A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 236-242.
    7. Peter Ozaveshe Oviroh & Tien-Chien Jen, 2018. "The Energy Cost Analysis of Hybrid Systems and Diesel Generators in Powering Selected Base Transceiver Station Locations in Nigeria," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-20, March.
    8. Haratian, Mojtaba & Tabibi, Pouya & Sadeghi, Meisam & Vaseghi, Babak & Poustdouz, Amin, 2018. "A renewable energy solution for stand-alone power generation: A case study of KhshU Site-Iran," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 926-935.
    9. Kazem, Hussein A. & Chaichan, Miqdam T., 2012. "Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(8), pages 6007-6012.
    10. Garrido, Henrique & Vendeirinho, Vivian & Brito, M.C., 2016. "Feasibility of KUDURA hybrid generation system in Mozambique: Sensitivity study of the small-scale PV-biomass and PV-diesel power generation hybrid system," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 47-57.
    11. Banjo A. Aderemi & S. P. Daniel Chowdhury & Thomas O. Olwal & Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz, 2018. "Techno-Economic Feasibility of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic and Battery Energy Storage Power System for a Mobile Cellular Base Station in Soshanguve, South Africa," Energies, MDPI, vol. 11(6), pages 1-26, June.
    12. Phinikarides, Alexander & Kindyni, Nitsa & Makrides, George & Georghiou, George E., 2014. "Review of photovoltaic degradation rate methodologies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 143-152.
    13. Nacer, T. & Hamidat, A. & Nadjemi, O. & Bey, M., 2016. "Feasibility study of grid connected photovoltaic system in family farms for electricity generation in rural areas," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(PA), pages 305-318.
    14. Majbaul Alam & Subhes Bhattacharyya, 2016. "Decentralized Renewable Hybrid Mini-Grids for Sustainable Electrification of the Off-Grid Coastal Areas of Bangladesh," Energies, MDPI, vol. 9(4), pages 1-16, April.
    15. Rezzouk, H. & Mellit, A., 2015. "Feasibility study and sensitivity analysis of a stand-alone photovoltaic–diesel–battery hybrid energy system in the north of Algeria," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 1134-1150.
    16. Das, Himadry Shekhar & Yatim, A.H.M. & Tan, Chee Wei & Lau, Kwan Yiew, 2016. "Proposition of a PV/tidal powered micro-hydro and diesel hybrid system: A southern Bangladesh focus," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1137-1148.
    17. Shah, Rakibuzzaman & Mithulananthan, N. & Bansal, R.C. & Ramachandaramurthy, V.K., 2015. "A review of key power system stability challenges for large-scale PV integration," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1423-1436.
    18. Ramli, Makbul A.M. & Hiendro, Ayong & Twaha, Ssennoga, 2015. "Economic analysis of PV/diesel hybrid system with flywheel energy storage," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 398-405.
    19. Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin & Jidin, Razali & Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh & Shaaya, Sharifah Azwa, 2015. "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 80-97.
    20. Nag, Aditya Kumar & Sarkar, Shibayan, 2018. "Modeling of hybrid energy system for futuristic energy demand of an Indian rural area and their optimal and sensitivity analysis," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 477-488.
    21. Shahzad, M. Kashif & Zahid, Adeem & ur Rashid, Tanzeel & Rehan, Mirza Abdullah & Ali, Muzaffar & Ahmad, Mueen, 2017. "Techno-economic feasibility analysis of a solar-biomass off grid system for the electrification of remote rural areas in Pakistan using HOMER software," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 264-273.
    22. Haghighat Mamaghani, Alireza & Avella Escandon, Sebastian Alberto & Najafi, Behzad & Shirazi, Ali & Rinaldi, Fabio, 2016. "Techno-economic feasibility of photovoltaic, wind, diesel and hybrid electrification systems for off-grid rural electrification in Colombia," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 293-305.
    23. Ramli, Makbul A.M. & Hiendro, Ayong & Al-Turki, Yusuf A., 2016. "Techno-economic energy analysis of wind/solar hybrid system: Case study for western coastal area of Saudi Arabia," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 374-385.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. William López-Castrillón & Héctor H. Sepúlveda & Cristian Mattar, 2021. "Off-Grid Hybrid Electrical Generation Systems in Remote Communities: Trends and Characteristics in Sustainability Solutions," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-29, May.
    2. Ali Saleh Aziz & Mohammad Faridun Naim Tajuddin & Mohd Rafi Adzman & Makbul A. M. Ramli & Saad Mekhilef, 2019. "Energy Management and Optimization of a PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid Energy System Using a Combined Dispatch Strategy," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-26, January.
    3. Aziz, Ali Saleh & Tajuddin, Mohammad Faridun Naim & Adzman, Mohd Rafi & Mohammed, Mohd Fayzul & Ramli, Makbul A.M., 2020. "Feasibility analysis of grid-connected and islanded operation of a solar PV microgrid system: A case study of Iraq," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).
    4. Ali Saleh Aziz & Mohammad Faridun Naim Tajuddin & Mohd Rafi Adzman & Makbul A. M. Ramli, 2021. "Impacts of albedo and atmospheric conditions on the efficiency of solar energy: a case study in temperate climate of Choman, Iraq," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 989-1018, January.
    5. Come Zebra, Emília Inês & van der Windt, Henny J. & Nhumaio, Geraldo & Faaij, André P.C., 2021. "A review of hybrid renewable energy systems in mini-grids for off-grid electrification in developing countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    6. Li, Jinze & Liu, Pei & Li, Zheng, 2020. "Optimal design and techno-economic analysis of a solar-wind-biomass off-grid hybrid power system for remote rural electrification: A case study of west China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 208(C).
    7. Abhi Chatterjee & Daniel Burmester & Alan Brent & Ramesh Rayudu, 2019. "Research Insights and Knowledge Headways for Developing Remote, Off-Grid Microgrids in Developing Countries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(10), pages 1-19, May.
    8. Pascasio, Jethro Daniel A. & Esparcia, Eugene A. & Castro, Michael T. & Ocon, Joey D., 2021. "Comparative assessment of solar photovoltaic-wind hybrid energy systems: A case for Philippine off-grid islands," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1589-1607.
    9. Das, Barun K. & Al-Abdeli, Yasir M. & Woolridge, Matthew, 2019. "Effects of battery technology and load scalability on stand-alone PV/ICE hybrid micro-grid system performance," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 57-69.
    10. Toopshekan, Ashkan & Yousefi, Hossein & Astaraei, Fatemeh Razi, 2020. "Technical, economic, and performance analysis of a hybrid energy system using a novel dispatch strategy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 213(C).
    11. Kumar, Jitendra & Suryakiran, B.V. & Verma, Ashu & Bhatti, T.S., 2019. "Analysis of techno-economic viability with demand response strategy of a grid-connected microgrid model for enhanced rural electrification in Uttar Pradesh state, India," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 176-185.
    12. Yilmaz, Saban & Dincer, Furkan, 2017. "Optimal design of hybrid PV-Diesel-Battery systems for isolated lands: A case study for Kilis, Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 344-352.
    13. Laetitia Uwineza & Hyun-Goo Kim & Jan Kleissl & Chang Ki Kim, 2022. "Technical Control and Optimal Dispatch Strategy for a Hybrid Energy System," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(8), pages 1-19, April.
    14. Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud & Hassan Zuhair Al-Garni, 2021. "Optimum Configuration of a Renewable Energy System Using Multi-Year Parameters and Advanced Battery Storage Modules: A Case Study in Northern Saudi Arabia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(9), pages 1-17, May.
    15. Bahramara, S. & Moghaddam, M. Parsa & Haghifam, M.R., 2016. "Optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems using HOMER: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 609-620.
    16. Das, Barun K. & Zaman, Forhad, 2019. "Performance analysis of a PV/Diesel hybrid system for a remote area in Bangladesh: Effects of dispatch strategies, batteries, and generator selection," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 169(C), pages 263-276.
    17. Satya Prakash Makhija & S. P. Dubey, 2019. "Feasibility analysis of biomass-based grid-integrated and stand-alone hybrid energy systems for a cement plant in India," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 861-878, April.
    18. Sweta Singh & Adam Slowik & Neeraj Kanwar & Nand K. Meena, 2021. "Techno-Economic Feasibility Analysis of Grid-Connected Microgrid Design by Using a Modified Multi-Strategy Fusion Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(1), pages 1-20, January.
    19. Deepika Bishnoi & Harsh Chaturvedi, 2022. "Optimal Design of a Hybrid Energy System for Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Onshore Oil and Gas Fields," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(6), pages 1-21, March.
    20. Chen, Scarlett & Kumar, Anikesh & Wong, Wee Chin & Chiu, Min-Sen & Wang, Xiaonan, 2019. "Hydrogen value chain and fuel cells within hybrid renewable energy systems: Advanced operation and control strategies," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 233, pages 321-337.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:138:y:2019:i:c:p:775-792. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.