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A quantum model of option pricing: When Black–Scholes meets Schrödinger and its semi-classical limit

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  • Contreras, Mauricio
  • Pellicer, Rely
  • Villena, Marcelo
  • Ruiz, Aaron

Abstract

The Black–Scholes equation can be interpreted from the point of view of quantum mechanics, as the imaginary time Schrödinger equation of a free particle. When deviations of this state of equilibrium are considered, as a product of some market imperfection, such as: Transaction cost, asymmetric information issues, short-term volatility, extreme discontinuities, or serial correlations; the classical non-arbitrage assumption of the Black–Scholes model is violated, implying a non-risk-free portfolio. From Haven (2002) [1] we know that an arbitrage environment is a necessary condition to embedding the Black–Scholes option pricing model in a more general quantum physics setting. The aim of this paper is to propose a new Black–Scholes–Schrödinger model based on the endogenous arbitrage option pricing formulation introduced by Contreras et al. (2010) [2]. Hence, we derive a more general quantum model of option pricing, that incorporates arbitrage as an external time dependent force, which has an associated potential related to the random dynamic of the underlying asset price. This new resultant model can be interpreted as a Schrödinger equation in imaginary time for a particle of mass 1/σ2 with a wave function in an external field force generated by the arbitrage potential. As pointed out above, this new model can be seen as a more general formulation, where the perfect market equilibrium state postulated by the Black–Scholes model represent a particular case. Finally, since the Schrödinger equation is in place, we can apply semiclassical methods, of common use in theoretical physics, to find an approximate analytical solution of the Black–Scholes equation in the presence of market imperfections, as it is the case of an arbitrage bubble. Here, as a numerical illustration of the potential of this Schrödinger equation analogy, the semiclassical approximation is performed for different arbitrage bubble forms (step, linear and parabolic) and compare with the exact solution of our general quantum model of option pricing.

Suggested Citation

  • Contreras, Mauricio & Pellicer, Rely & Villena, Marcelo & Ruiz, Aaron, 2010. "A quantum model of option pricing: When Black–Scholes meets Schrödinger and its semi-classical limit," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(23), pages 5447-5459.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:389:y:2010:i:23:p:5447-5459 DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2010.08.018
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Iwata, Gyoichi, 1974. "Measurement of Conjectural Variations in Oligopoly," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(5), pages 947-966, September.
    2. Kaldor, Nicholas, 1972. "The Irrelevance of Equilibrium Economics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 82(328), pages 1237-1255, December.
    3. Haven, Emmanuel, 2003. "A Black-Scholes Schrödinger option price: ‘bit’ versus ‘qubit’," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 324(1), pages 201-206.
    4. Kirill Ilinski, 1997. "Physics of Finance," Papers hep-th/9710148, arXiv.org.
    5. Cornell, Bradford & French, Kenneth R, 1983. " Taxes and the Pricing of Stock Index Futures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 675-694, June.
    6. Contreras, Mauricio & Montalva, Rodrigo & Pellicer, Rely & Villena, Marcelo, 2010. "Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(17), pages 3552-3564.
    7. Panayides, Stephanos, 2006. "Arbitrage opportunities and their implications to derivative hedging," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 361(1), pages 289-296.
    8. Brennan, Michael J & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1990. "Arbitrage in Stock Index Futures," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(1), pages 7-31, January.
    9. Figlewski, Stephen, 1984. " Hedging Performance and Basis Risk in Stock Index Futures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 657-669, July.
    10. Fedotov, Sergei & Panayides, Stephanos, 2005. "Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 345(1), pages 207-217.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Denis M. Filatov & Maksim A. Vanyarkho, 2014. "An Unconventional Attempt to Tame Mandelbrot's Grey Swans," Papers 1406.5718, arXiv.org.
    2. Mauricio Contreras & Rely Pellicer & Marcelo Villena, 2016. "Dynamic optimization and its relation to classical and quantum constrained systems," Papers 1607.01317, arXiv.org.
    3. Mauricio Contreras & Rely Pellicer & Daniel Santiagos & Marcelo Villena, 2015. "Calibration and simulation of arbitrage effects in a non-equilibrium quantum Black-Scholes model by using semiclassical methods," Papers 1512.05377, arXiv.org.
    4. Contreras, Mauricio & Pellicer, Rely & Villena, Marcelo, 2017. "Dynamic optimization and its relation to classical and quantum constrained systems," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 479(C), pages 12-25.
    5. Rotundo, Giulia, 2014. "Black–Scholes–Schrödinger–Zipf–Mandelbrot model framework for improving a study of the coauthor core score," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 404(C), pages 296-301.

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