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Substitute goods, auctions, and equilibrium

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  • Milgrom, Paul
  • Strulovici, Bruno

Abstract

This paper identifies two notions of substitutes for auction and equilibrium analysis. Weak substitutes, the usual price-theory notion, guarantees monotonicity of Tatonnement processes and convergence of clock auctions to a pseudo-equilibrium, but only strong substitutes, which treats each unit traded as a distinct good with its own price, guarantees that every pseudo-equilibrium is a Walrasian equilibrium, that the Vickrey outcome is in the core, and that the "law of aggregate demand" is satisfied. When goods are divisible, weak substitutes along with concavity guarantees all of the above properties, except for the law of aggregate demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Milgrom, Paul & Strulovici, Bruno, 2009. "Substitute goods, auctions, and equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 212-247, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jetheo:v:144:y:2009:i:1:p:212-247
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paul Milgrom, 2000. "Putting Auction Theory to Work: The Simultaneous Ascending Auction," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 245-272, April.
    2. Milgrom, Paul, 1994. "Comparing Optima: Do Simplifying Assumptions Affect Conclusions?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 607-615, June.
    3. Ausubel Lawrence M & Milgrom Paul R, 2002. "Ascending Auctions with Package Bidding," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-44, August.
    4. Gul, Faruk & Stacchetti, Ennio, 2000. "The English Auction with Differentiated Commodities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 66-95, May.
    5. Gul, Faruk & Stacchetti, Ennio, 1999. "Walrasian Equilibrium with Gross Substitutes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 95-124, July.
    6. John William Hatfield & Paul R. Milgrom, 2005. "Matching with Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 913-935, September.
    7. Paul Milgrom & Ilya Segal, 2002. "Envelope Theorems for Arbitrary Choice Sets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 583-601, March.
    8. Bikhchandani, Sushil & Mamer, John W., 1997. "Competitive Equilibrium in an Exchange Economy with Indivisibilities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 385-413, June.
    9. Kelso, Alexander S, Jr & Crawford, Vincent P, 1982. "Job Matching, Coalition Formation, and Gross Substitutes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1483-1504, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Erlanson, Albin & Szwagrzak, Karol, 2013. "Strategy-Proof Package Assignment," Working Papers 2013:43, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    2. Elizabeth Baldwin & Paul W. Goldberg & Paul Klemperer & Edwin Lock, 2019. "Solving Strong-Substitutes Product-Mix Auctions," Economics Papers 2019-W08, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    3. Kazuo Murota & Akiyoshi Shioura & Zaifu Yang, 2014. "Time Bounds for Iterative Auctions: A Unified Approach by Discrete Convex Analysis," Discussion Papers 14/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
    4. Mingrong Wang & Mingxi Wang & Lihua Lang, 2017. "Reconsidering Carbon Permits Auction Mechanism: An Efficient Dynamic Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(8), pages 1624-1645, August.
    5. Baldwin, Elizabeth & Edhan, Omer & Jagadeesan, Ravi & Klemperer, Paul & Teytelboym, Alex, 2020. "The Equilibrium Existence Duality: Equilibrium with Indivisibilities & Income Effects," CEPR Discussion Papers 14926, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Paul Milgrom, 2009. "Assignment Messages and Exchanges," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 95-113, August.
    7. Hakan İnal, 2017. "An Extension of Ausubel's Auction for Heterogeneous Discrete Goods," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(4), pages 660-698, November.
    8. Sun, Ning & Yang, Zaifu, 2016. "An Efficient and Strategy-Proof Double-Track Auction for Substitutes and Complements," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 523, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    9. Sher, Itai & Kim, Kyoo il, 2014. "Identifying combinatorial valuations from aggregate demand," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 428-458.
    10. Elizabeth Baldwin & Paul Klemperer, 2019. "Understanding Preferences: “Demand Types”, and the Existence of Equilibrium With Indivisibilities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 87(3), pages 867-932, May.
    11. Satoru Fujishige & Zaifu Yang, 2015. "Decentralised Random Competitive Dynamic Market Processes," Discussion Papers 15/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
    12. Teytelboym, Alexander, 2014. "Gross substitutes and complements: A simple generalization," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(2), pages 135-138.
    13. Yang, Yi-You, 2013. "Competitive equilibrium with indivisible objects," MPRA Paper 74662, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Oct 2016.
    14. Shirata, Yasuhiro, 2017. "First price package auction with many traders," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 71-83.
    15. Akiyoshi Shioura & Zaifu Yang, 2013. "Equilibrium, Auction, Multiple Substitutes and Complements," Discussion Papers 13/17, Department of Economics, University of York.
    16. Satoru Fujishige & Zaifu Yang, 2017. "On a spontaneous decentralized market process," The Journal of Mechanism and Institution Design, Society for the Promotion of Mechanism and Institution Design, University of York, vol. 2(1), pages 1-37, December.
    17. Kazuo Murota, 2016. "Discrete convex analysis: A tool for economics and game theory," The Journal of Mechanism and Institution Design, Society for the Promotion of Mechanism and Institution Design, University of York, vol. 1(1), pages 151-273, December.
    18. Ravi Jagadeesan & Scott Duke Kominers & Ross Rheingans-Yoo, 2020. "Lone wolves in competitive equilibria," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 55(2), pages 215-228, August.
    19. Satoru Fujishige & Zaifu Yang, 2020. "A Universal Dynamic Auction for Unimodular Demand Types: An Efficient Auction Design for Various Kinds of Indivisible Commodities," Discussion Papers 20/08, Department of Economics, University of York.

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