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Substitute goods, auctions, and equilibrium

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  • Milgrom, Paul
  • Strulovici, Bruno

Abstract

This paper identifies two notions of substitutes for auction and equilibrium analysis. Weak substitutes, the usual price-theory notion, guarantees monotonicity of Tatonnement processes and convergence of clock auctions to a pseudo-equilibrium, but only strong substitutes, which treats each unit traded as a distinct good with its own price, guarantees that every pseudo-equilibrium is a Walrasian equilibrium, that the Vickrey outcome is in the core, and that the "law of aggregate demand" is satisfied. When goods are divisible, weak substitutes along with concavity guarantees all of the above properties, except for the law of aggregate demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Milgrom, Paul & Strulovici, Bruno, 2009. "Substitute goods, auctions, and equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 212-247, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jetheo:v:144:y:2009:i:1:p:212-247
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paul Milgrom & Ilya Segal, 2002. "Envelope Theorems for Arbitrary Choice Sets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 583-601, March.
    2. Paul Milgrom, 2000. "Putting Auction Theory to Work: The Simultaneous Ascending Auction," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 245-272, April.
    3. Milgrom, Paul, 1994. "Comparing Optima: Do Simplifying Assumptions Affect Conclusions?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 607-615, June.
    4. John William Hatfield & Paul R. Milgrom, 2005. "Matching with Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 913-935, September.
    5. Ausubel Lawrence M & Milgrom Paul R, 2002. "Ascending Auctions with Package Bidding," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-44, August.
    6. Gul, Faruk & Stacchetti, Ennio, 2000. "The English Auction with Differentiated Commodities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 66-95, May.
    7. Bikhchandani, Sushil & Mamer, John W., 1997. "Competitive Equilibrium in an Exchange Economy with Indivisibilities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 385-413, June.
    8. Gul, Faruk & Stacchetti, Ennio, 1999. "Walrasian Equilibrium with Gross Substitutes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 95-124, July.
    9. Kelso, Alexander S, Jr & Crawford, Vincent P, 1982. "Job Matching, Coalition Formation, and Gross Substitutes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1483-1504, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:8:p:1624-1645 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Erlanson, Albin & Szwagrzak, Karol, 2013. "Strategy-Proof Package Assignment," Working Papers 2013:43, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    3. repec:jmi:articl:jmi-v1i1a5 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Paul Milgrom, 2009. "Assignment Messages and Exchanges," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 95-113, August.
    5. Yang, Yi-You, 2013. "Competitive equilibrium with indivisible objects," MPRA Paper 74662, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Oct 2016.
    6. Shirata, Yasuhiro, 2017. "First price package auction with many traders," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 71-83.
    7. Elizabeth Baldwin & Paul Klemperer, 2015. "Understanding Preferences: “Demand Types”, and the Existence of Equilibrium with Indivisibilities," Economics Papers 2015-W10, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
    8. repec:bla:metroe:v:68:y:2017:i:4:p:660-698 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Kazuo Murota & Akiyoshi Shioura & Zaifu Yang, 2014. "Time Bounds for Iterative Auctions: A Unified Approach by Discrete Convex Analysis," Discussion Papers 14/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
    10. Akiyoshi Shioura & Zaifu Yang, 2013. "Equilibrium, Auction, Multiple Substitutes and Complements," Discussion Papers 13/17, Department of Economics, University of York.
    11. Sun, Ning & Yang, Zaifu, 2016. "An Efficient and Strategy-Proof Double-Track Auction for Substitutes and Complements," Center for Mathematical Economics Working Papers 523, Center for Mathematical Economics, Bielefeld University.
    12. Sher, Itai & Kim, Kyoo il, 2014. "Identifying combinatorial valuations from aggregate demand," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 428-458.
    13. repec:jmi:articl:jmi-v2i1a1 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Satoru Fujishige & Zaifu Yang, 2015. "Decentralised Random Competitive Dynamic Market Processes," Discussion Papers 15/27, Department of Economics, University of York.
    15. Teytelboym, Alexander, 2014. "Gross substitutes and complements: A simple generalization," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(2), pages 135-138.

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