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Using the ensemble Kalman filter for electricity load forecasting and analysis


  • Takeda, Hisashi
  • Tamura, Yoshiyasu
  • Sato, Seisho


This paper proposes a novel framework for modeling electricity loads; it can be used for both forecasting and analysis. The framework combines the EnKF (ensemble Kalman filter) technique with shrinkage/multiple regression methods. First, SSMs (state-space models) are used to model the load structure, and then the EnKF is used for the estimation. Next, shrinkage/multiple linear regression methods are used to further enhance accuracy. The EnKF allows for the modeling of nonlinear systems in the SSMs, and this gives it great flexibility and detailed analytical information, such as the temperature response rate. We show that the forecasting accuracy of the proposed models is significantly better than that of the current state-of-the-art models, and this method also provides detailed analytical information.

Suggested Citation

  • Takeda, Hisashi & Tamura, Yoshiyasu & Sato, Seisho, 2016. "Using the ensemble Kalman filter for electricity load forecasting and analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:104:y:2016:i:c:p:184-198
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Ohtsuka, Yoshihiro & Oga, Takashi & Kakamu, Kazuhiko, 2010. "Forecasting electricity demand in Japan: A Bayesian spatial autoregressive ARMA approach," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 54(11), pages 2721-2735, November.
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    7. Ramanathan, Ramu & Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive W. J. & Vahid-Araghi, Farshid & Brace, Casey, 1997. "Shorte-run forecasts of electricity loads and peaks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 161-174, June.
    8. Ko, Chia-Nan & Lee, Cheng-Ming, 2013. "Short-term load forecasting using SVR (support vector regression)-based radial basis function neural network with dual extended Kalman filter," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 413-422.
    9. Bahrami, Saadat & Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah & Parastegari, Moein, 2014. "Short term electric load forecasting by wavelet transform and grey model improved by PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 434-442.
    10. Charlton, Nathaniel & Singleton, Colin, 2014. "A refined parametric model for short term load forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 364-368.
    11. Pielow, Amy & Sioshansi, Ramteen & Roberts, Matthew C., 2012. "Modeling short-run electricity demand with long-term growth rates and consumer price elasticity in commercial and industrial sectors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 533-540.
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    6. Wang, Deyun & Luo, Hongyuan & Grunder, Olivier & Lin, Yanbing & Guo, Haixiang, 2017. "Multi-step ahead electricity price forecasting using a hybrid model based on two-layer decomposition technique and BP neural network optimized by firefly algorithm," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 390-407.
    7. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:8:p:1186-:d:107924 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. He, Yaoyao & Xu, Qifa & Wan, Jinhong & Yang, Shanlin, 2016. "Short-term power load probability density forecasting based on quantile regression neural network and triangle kernel function," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 498-512.
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