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From stochastic dominance to mean-risk models: Semideviations as risk measures

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  • Ogryczak, Wlodzimierz
  • Ruszczynski, Andrzej

Abstract

Two methods are frequently used for modeling the choice among uncertain outcomes: stochastic dominance and mean-risk approaches. The former is based on an axiomatic model of risk-averse preferences but does not provide a convenient computational recipe. The latter quantifies the problem in a lucid form of two criteria with possible trade-off analysis, but cannot model all risk-averse preferences. In particular, if variance is used as a measure of risk, the resulting mean-variance (Markowitz) model is, in general, not consistent with stochastic dominance rules. This paper shows that the standard semideviation (square root of the semivariance) as the risk measure makes the mean-risk model consistent with the second degree stochastic dominance, provided that the trade-off coefficient is bounded by a certain constant. Similar results are obtained for the absolute semideviation, and for the absolute and standard deviations in the case of symmetric or bounded distributions. In the analysis we use a new tool, the Outcome-Risk diagram, which appears to be particularly useful for comparing uncertain outcomes.
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  • Ogryczak, Wlodzimierz & Ruszczynski, Andrzej, 1999. "From stochastic dominance to mean-risk models: Semideviations as risk measures," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 116(1), pages 33-50, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ejores:v:116:y:1999:i:1:p:33-50
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    1. Harry Markowitz, 1952. "Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 7(1), pages 77-91, March.
    2. Fishburn, Peter C, 1977. "Mean-Risk Analysis with Risk Associated with Below-Target Returns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 116-126, March.
    3. Hiroshi Konno & Hiroaki Yamazaki, 1991. "Mean-Absolute Deviation Portfolio Optimization Model and Its Applications to Tokyo Stock Market," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(5), pages 519-531, May.
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    6. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "Increasing risk: I. A definition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-243, September.
    7. Vijay S. Bawa, 1982. "Research Bibliography---Stochastic Dominance: A Research Bibliography," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(6), pages 698-712, June.
    8. Porter, R Burr, 1974. "Semivariance and Stochastic Dominance: A Comparison," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(1), pages 200-204, March.
    9. Yitzhaki, Shlomo, 1982. "Stochastic Dominance, Mean Variance, and Gini's Mean Difference," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 178-185, March.
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