In urban South Africa, 16 year old adolescents experience greater health equality than children
Despite the strongly established link between socio-economic status (SES) and health across most stages of the life-course, the evidence for a socio-economic gradient in adolescent health outcomes is less consistent. This paper examines associations between household, school, and neighbourhood SES measures with body composition outcomes in 16 year old South African Black urban adolescents from the 1990 born Birth to Twenty (Bt20) cohort. Multivariable regression analyses were applied to data from a sub-sample of the Bt20 cohort (n=346, 53% male) with measures taken at birth and 16 years of age to establish socio-economic, biological, and demographic predictors of fat mass, lean mass, and body mass index (BMI). Results were compared with earlier published evidence of health inequality at ages 9–10 years in Bt20. Consistent predictors of higher fat mass and BMI in fully adjusted models were being female, born post term, having a mother with post secondary school education, and having an obese mother. Most measures of SES were only weakly associated with body composition, with an inconsistent direction of association. This is in contrast to earlier findings with Bt20 9–10 year olds where SES inequalities in body composition were observed. Findings suggest targeting obesity interventions at females in households where a mother has a high BMI.
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- Case, Anne & Menendez, Alicia, 2009.
"Sex differences in obesity rates in poor countries: Evidence from South Africa,"
Economics & Human Biology,
Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 271-282, December.
- Anne Case & Alicia Menendez, 2007. "Sex Differences in Obesity Rates in Poor Countries: Evidence from South Africa," Working Papers 1004, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- Anne Case & Alicia Menendez, 2009. "Sex Differences In Obesity Rates In Poor Countries: Evidence From South Africa," Working Papers 1020, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Anne Case & Alicia Menendez, 2007. "Sex Differences in Obesity Rates in Poor Countries: Evidence from South Africa," NBER Working Papers 13541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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