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Calculation, Adaptation And Rational Expectations

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  • Evans, George W.
  • Ramey, Garey

Abstract

We propose an active cognition approach to bounded rationality, in which agents use a calculation algorithm to improve on the forecasts provided by a purely adaptive learning rule such as least-squares learning. Agents' choices of calculation intensity depend on their estimates of the benefits of improved forecasts relative to calculation costs. Using an asset-pricing model, we show how more rapid adjustment to rational expectations and forward-looking behavior arise naturally when there are large anticipated structural changes such as policy shifts. We also give illustrative applications in which the severity of asset price bubbles and the intensity of hyperinflationary episodes are related to the cognitive ability of the agents.

Suggested Citation

  • Evans, George W. & Ramey, Garey, 1998. "Calculation, Adaptation And Rational Expectations," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 156-182, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:macdyn:v:2:y:1998:i:02:p:156-182_00
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    Cited by:

    1. Guse, Eran A., 2005. "Stability properties for learning with heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1623-1642, October.
    2. Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo & Mitra, Kaushik, 2009. "Anticipated fiscal policy and adaptive learning," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(7), pages 930-953, October.
    3. Colucci, Domenico & Valori, Vincenzo, 2005. "Error learning behaviour and stability revisited," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 371-388, March.
    4. Albert Marcet & Juan P. Nicolini, 2003. "Recurrent Hyperinflations and Learning," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(5), pages 1476-1498, December.
    5. Arifovic, Jasmina & Dawid, Herbert & Deissenberg, Christophe & Kostyshyna, Olena, 2010. "Learning benevolent leadership in a heterogenous agents economy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1768-1790, September.
    6. Mariana García-Schmidt & Michael Woodford, 2019. "Are Low Interest Rates Deflationary? A Paradox of Perfect-Foresight Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 109(1), pages 86-120, January.
    7. Hacıoğlu, Volkan, 2015. "Bayesian Expectations and Strategic Complementarity: Implications for Macroeconomic Stability," MPRA Paper 75397, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Branch, William A., 2002. "Local convergence properties of a cobweb model with rationally heterogeneous expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 63-85, November.
    9. Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Carolina Serpieri, 2018. "Robust Optimal Policies in a Behavioural New Keynesian Model," JRC Working Papers JRC111603, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    10. Matthew S. Wilson, 2018. "Rationality with preference discovery costs," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 85(2), pages 233-251, August.
    11. Woodford, Michael, 2001. "Fiscal Requirements for Price Stability," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 669-728, August.
    12. Guse, Eran A., 2010. "Heterogeneous expectations, adaptive learning, and evolutionary dynamics," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 74(1-2), pages 42-57, May.
    13. Berardi, Michele & Galimberti, Jaqueson K., 2017. "Empirical calibration of adaptive learning," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 144(C), pages 219-237.
    14. Branch, William A. & McGough, Bruce, 2008. "Replicator dynamics in a Cobweb model with rationally heterogeneous expectations," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 224-244, February.

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