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Depth to Bedrock and the Formation of the Manhattan Skyline, 1890–1915




New York City historiography holds that Manhattan developed two business centers—downtown and midtown—because the bedrock is close to the surface at these locations, with a bedrock “valley†in between. This article is the first effort to measure the effect of depth to bedrock on construction costs and the location of skyscrapers. We find that while depth to bedrock had a modest effect on costs (up to 7 percent), it had relatively little influence on the location of skyscrapers. “Hour by hour the caissons reach down to the rock of the earth and hold the building to a turning planet.†Carl Sandburg, Skyscraper

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  • Barr, Jason & Tassier, Troy & Trendafilov, Rossen, 2011. "Depth to Bedrock and the Formation of the Manhattan Skyline, 1890–1915," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 71(4), pages 1060-1077, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jechis:v:71:y:2011:i:04:p:1060-1077_00

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    Blog mentions

    As found by, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The Bedrock Myth and the Rise of Midtown Manhattan (Part I)
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2019-07-29 12:15:14
    2. The Bedrock Myth and the Rise of Midtown Manhattan (Part II)
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2019-08-06 12:31:54
    3. The Birth of Height: The World’s First Skyscraper
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2017-10-07 19:18:55
    4. The Technology of Tall (Part I): Skeletons, Outriggers, and Buttresses
      by Jason Barr in Skynomics Blog on 2019-07-16 12:22:22


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M. & Barr, Jason, 2022. "The economics of skyscrapers: A synthesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    2. Adelheid Holl, 2019. "Natural Geography and Patterns of Local Population Growth and Decline in Spain: 1960–2011," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(18), pages 1-21, September.
    3. Yamasaki, Junichi & Nakajima, Kentaro & Teshima, Kensuke, 2021. "From Samurai to Skyscrapers: How Historical Lot Fragmentation Shapes Tokyo," TDB-CAREE Discussion Paper Series E-2020-02, Teikoku Databank Center for Advanced Empirical Research on Enterprise and Economy, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    4. Remi Jedwab & Jason Barr & Jan K. Brueckner, 2020. "Cities without Skylines: Worldwide Building-Height Gaps and Their Implications," CESifo Working Paper Series 8511, CESifo.
    5. Mariaflavia Harari, 2020. "Cities in Bad Shape: Urban Geometry in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(8), pages 2377-2421, August.
    6. Hans Koster, "undated". "The Welfare Effects of Greenbelt Policy: Evidence from England," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 19-023/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Jedwab, Remi & Barr, Jason & Brueckner, Jan K., 2022. "Cities Without Skylines: Worldwide Building-Height Gaps and their Possible Determinants and Implications," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 132(C).

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