IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Robust design of multiscale programs to reduce deforestation




A framework is provided for structuring programs aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Crediting reference levels and the coordination among different implementing entities at multiple geographic scales are discussed. A crediting reference level has an error component if it differs from the business-as-usual (BAU) without REDD. Both the BAU emissions and the impact of REDD actions are uncertain, implying that participating in REDD entails stakeholder risk, the distribution of which depends on REDD program design. To categorize REDD architectures we define scale-neutrality whereby, for a given REDD design, crediting relative to the reference level at a given scale is not affected by errors in reference levels at scales below it. Sufficient conditions are derived for scale-neutrality to hold. A Brazilian Amazon example is provided, comparing potential REDD architectures, and highlighting how a cap-and-trade approach may match the environmental outcome obtainable with perfect foresight of the BAU emissions.

Suggested Citation

  • Cattaneo, Andrea, 2011. "Robust design of multiscale programs to reduce deforestation," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(04), pages 455-478, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:endeec:v:16:y:2011:i:04:p:455-478_00

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to article abstract page
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Betha Lusiana & Meine Noordwijk & Feri Johana & Gamma Galudra & S. Suyanto & Georg Cadisch, 2014. "Implications of uncertainty and scale in carbon emission estimates on locally appropriate designs to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+)," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 19(6), pages 757-772, August.
    2. Alix-Garcia, Jennifer & Wolff, Hendrik, 2014. "Payment for Ecosystem Services from Forests," IZA Discussion Papers 8179, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Jonah Busch & Ruben Lubowski & Fabiano Godoy & Marc Steininger & Arief Anshory Yusuf & Kemen Austin & Jenny Hewson & Daniel Juhn & Muhammad Farid & Frederick Boltz, 2011. "Structuring national and sub-national economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation in Indonesia," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201105, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jun 2011.
    4. Bottazzi, Patrick & Cattaneo, Andrea & Rocha, David Crespo & Rist, Stephan, 2013. "Assessing sustainable forest management under REDD+: A community-based labour perspective," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 94-103.
    5. Nolte, Christoph & Gobbi, Beatriz & le Polain de Waroux, Yann & Piquer-Rodríguez, María & Butsic, Van & Lambin, Eric F., 2017. "Decentralized Land Use Zoning Reduces Large-scale Deforestation in a Major Agricultural Frontier," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 30-40.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cup:endeec:v:16:y:2011:i:04:p:455-478_00. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Keith Waters). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.