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Empirical Efficiency Maximization: Improved Locally Efficient Covariate Adjustment in Randomized Experiments and Survival Analysis

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  • Rubin Daniel B

    (University of California, Berkeley)

  • van der Laan Mark J.

    (University of California, Berkeley)

Abstract

It has long been recognized that covariate adjustment can increase precision in randomized experiments, even when it is not strictly necessary. Adjustment is often straightforward when a discrete covariate partitions the sample into a handful of strata, but becomes more involved with even a single continuous covariate such as age. As randomized experiments remain a gold standard for scientific inquiry, and the information age facilitates a massive collection of baseline information, the longstanding problem of if and how to adjust for covariates is likely to engage investigators for the foreseeable future.

Suggested Citation

  • Rubin Daniel B & van der Laan Mark J., 2008. "Empirical Efficiency Maximization: Improved Locally Efficient Covariate Adjustment in Randomized Experiments and Survival Analysis," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-40, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:ijbist:v:4:y:2008:i:1:n:5
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Daniel O. Scharfstein, 2002. "Estimation of the failure time distribution in the presence of informative censoring," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 89(3), pages 617-634, August.
    2. Satten, Glen A. & Datta, Somnath & Robins, James, 2001. "Estimating the marginal survival function in the presence of time dependent covariates," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 397-403, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rosenblum Michael & van der Laan Mark J., 2010. "Simple, Efficient Estimators of Treatment Effects in Randomized Trials Using Generalized Linear Models to Leverage Baseline Variables," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-44, April.
    2. Giorgio Brunello & Lorenzo Rocco, 2017. "The Labor Market Effects of Academic and Vocational Education over the Life Cycle: Evidence Based on a British Cohort," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(1), pages 106-166.
    3. Tan, Zhiqiang, 2014. "Second-order asymptotic theory for calibration estimators in sampling and missing-data problems," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 240-253.
    4. Porter Kristin E. & Gruber Susan & van der Laan Mark J. & Sekhon Jasjeet S., 2011. "The Relative Performance of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimators," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-34, August.
    5. Peisong Han, 2016. "Combining Inverse Probability Weighting and Multiple Imputation to Improve Robustness of Estimation," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 43(1), pages 246-260, March.
    6. Zhiwei Zhang & Zhen Chen & James F. Troendle & Jun Zhang, 2012. "Causal Inference on Quantiles with an Obstetric Application," Biometrics, The International Biometric Society, vol. 68(3), pages 697-706, September.
    7. Jie Zhou & Zhiwei Zhang & Zhaohai Li & Jun Zhang, 2015. "Coarsened Propensity Scores and Hybrid Estimators for Missing Data and Causal Inference," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 83(3), pages 449-471, December.
    8. Peisong Han, 2016. "Intrinsic efficiency and multiple robustness in longitudinal studies with drop-out," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 103(3), pages 683-700.
    9. Han, Peisong, 2012. "A note on improving the efficiency of inverse probability weighted estimator using the augmentation term," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(12), pages 2221-2228.
    10. Helene Boistard & Guillaume Chauvet & David Haziza, 2016. "Doubly Robust Inference for the Distribution Function in the Presence of Missing Survey Data," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 43(3), pages 683-699, September.
    11. Vermeulen Karel & Vansteelandt Stijn, 2016. "Data-Adaptive Bias-Reduced Doubly Robust Estimation," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 253-282, May.
    12. Rubin Daniel B. & van der Laan Mark J., 2012. "Statistical Issues and Limitations in Personalized Medicine Research with Clinical Trials," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-20, July.
    13. van der Laan Mark J. & Gruber Susan, 2010. "Collaborative Double Robust Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-71, May.
    14. van der Laan Mark J., 2010. "Targeted Maximum Likelihood Based Causal Inference: Part I," The International Journal of Biostatistics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 1-45, February.

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