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Evaluation of upstream petroleum agreements and exploration and production costs


  • Abdulaziz Al-Attar
  • Osamah Alomair


Recently, several major petroleum-exporting countries opened their upstream petroleum sectors to investment by international oil companies via various types of agreement, such as royalty/tax systems, production-sharing agreements and/or risk service agreements. This article evaluates upstream petroleum agreements and examines exploration and production (E&P) costs in major petroleum-exporting countries, with the intention of determining the relationship between the type of upstream petroleum agreement and E&P costs. It uses data obtained from experts and then splits the available data into three categories: low E&P cost countries (costs equal to or below $4.65 per barrel), medium E&P cost countries (between $4.65/b and $8.50/b) and high E&P cost countries (more than $8.50/b). The paper includes specific outlooks for selected countries to examine this relationship. Finally, the article ascertains that total E&P costs are one of the main factors that determine the type of upstream petroleum agreement host countries are willing to adopt. Copyright 2005 Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Abdulaziz Al-Attar & Osamah Alomair, 2005. "Evaluation of upstream petroleum agreements and exploration and production costs," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 29(4), pages 243-266, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:opecrv:v:29:y:2005:i:4:p:243-266

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    Cited by:

    1. Escobar, Octavio R. & Le Chaffotec, Alexandra, 2015. "The influence of OPEC membership on economic development: A transaction cost comparative approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 304-318.
    2. Kalyuzhnova, Yelena & Nygaard, Christian, 2008. "State governance evolution in resource-rich transition economies: An application to Russia and Kazakhstan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1829-1842, June.
    3. Feng, Zhuo & Zhang, Shui-Bo & Gao, Ying, 2014. "On oil investment and production: A comparison of production sharing contracts and buyback contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 395-402.
    4. Patrick Gonzalez, 2013. "Taxing a Natural Resource with a Minimum Revenue Requirement," Cahiers de recherche CREATE 2013-6, CREATE.

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