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Agricultural Adaptation To Urbanization: Farm Types In Northeast Metropolitan Areas


  • Heimlich, Ralph E.
  • Barnard, Charles H.


Metropolitan agriculture is not homogeneous. This paper delves beneath metropolitan county averages using data on individual farms in the Northeast classified into three statistically distinct types. A small group of adaptive farms profit from intensive production on smaller acreage to accommodate themselves to the urban environment. Traditional farms have increased costs and pressures on their more extensive operations without compensating increases in revenue from better-adapted enterprises. A large group of recreational farms subsidize small-farm activities from nonfarm income. Operating characteristics of each farm type are presented and their importance to metropolitan agriculture is assessed. Implications for preserving farming and farmland in the Northeast are drawn.

Suggested Citation

  • Heimlich, Ralph E. & Barnard, Charles H., 1992. "Agricultural Adaptation To Urbanization: Farm Types In Northeast Metropolitan Areas," Northeastern Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 1-11, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:nejare:28849

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    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:7:p:1168-:d:103543 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Findeis, Jill L. & Lass, Daniel A., 1992. "Farm Operator Off-farm Labor Supply and Hired Labor Use on Pennsylvania Farms," Staff Paper Series 256845, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology.
    3. Thomas Coisnon & Walid Oueslati & Julien Salanié, 2012. "Urban sprawl occurrence under spatially varying agricultural bid-rent and amenities," Working Papers halshs-00748681, HAL.
    4. Jeremy Porter & Philip Mason & Frank Howell, 2013. "Metropolitan Influence and Land Use Competition in Potential Biomass Crop Production: A Spatial Demographic Analysis," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 32(2), pages 285-310, April.
    5. Cheng, Mei-luan & Bills, Nelson L. & Francis, Joseph, 2006. "Historical and Spatial Analysis of High-Value Crop Production in the U.S," Working Papers 127063, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    6. Bernd Pölling, 2016. "Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(5), pages 1-23, May.
    7. Coisnon, Thomas & Oueslati, Walid & Salanié, Julien, 2014. "Urban sprawl occurrence under spatially varying agricultural amenities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 38-49.
    8. Cheng, Mei-luan & Gomez, Miguel I. & Bills, Nelson L., 2011. "Urban Agglomeration Economies in the U.S. Greenhouse and Nursery Production," Working Papers 126611, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    9. Galen Newman & Jesse Saginor, 2016. "Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-15, March.
    10. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:5:p:446:d:69503 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:269:d:65721 is not listed on IDEAS


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