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Joint Design of Emission Tax and Trading Systems


  • Bernard Caillaud


  • Gabrielle Demange



This paper analyzes the joint design of fiscal and cap-and-trade instruments in climate policies under uncertainty. Whether the optimal mechanism is a mixed policy (with some firms subject to a tax and others to a cap-and-trade) or a uniform one (with all firms subject to the same instrument) depends on parameters reflecting preferences, production, and, most importantly, the stochastic structure of the shocks affecting the economy. This framework is then used to address the issue of the non-cooperative design of climate regulation systems in various areas worldwide under uncertainty. We characterize the resulting inefficiency, show how the Pareto argument in favor of merging ETS of different regions is reinforced under uncertainty, and discuss the non-cooperative design of mixed systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernard Caillaud & Gabrielle Demange, 2017. "Joint Design of Emission Tax and Trading Systems," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 127, pages 163-201.
  • Handle: RePEc:adr:anecst:y:2017:i:127:p:163-201 DOI: 10.15609/annaeconstat2009.127.0163

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Wood, Peter J. & Heindl, Peter & Jotzo, Frank & Löschel, Andreas, 2013. "Linking price and quantity pollution controls under uncertainty," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-025, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    2. Bovenberg, A Lans & Goulder, Lawrence H, 1996. "Optimal Environmental Taxation in the Presence of Other Taxes: General-Equilibrium Analyses," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 985-1000, September.
    3. Stavins, Robert Norman & Ranson, Matthew, 2012. "Post-Durban Climate Policy Architecture Based on Linkage of Cap-and-Trade Systems," Scholarly Articles 8832405, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
    4. Jotzo, Frank & Betz, Regina, 2009. "Linking the Australian Emissions Trading Scheme," Research Reports 94814, Australian National University, Environmental Economics Research Hub.
    5. Peter Heindl & Peter J. Wood & Frank Jotzo, 2014. "Combining International Cap-and-Trade with National Carbon Taxes," CCEP Working Papers 1418, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    6. Ambec, Stefan & Coria, Jessica, 2013. "Prices vs quantities with multiple pollutants," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 123-140.
    7. Christian Flachsland & Robert Marschinski & Ottmar Edenhofer, 2009. "To link or not to link: benefits and disadvantages of linking cap-and-trade systems," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 358-372, July.
    8. Gilbert E. Metcalf & David Weisbach, 2012. "Linking Policies When Tastes Differ: Global Climate Policy in a Heterogeneous World," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(1), pages 110-129.
    9. William D. Nordhaus, 2007. "A Review of the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 686-702, September.
    10. Mandell, Svante, 2008. "Optimal mix of emissions taxes and cap-and-trade," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 131-140, September.
    11. Martin, Ralf & de Preux, Laure B. & Wagner, Ulrich J., 2014. "The impact of a carbon tax on manufacturing: Evidence from microdata," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 1-14.
    12. Bovenberg, A.L. & Goulder, L.H., 1996. "Optimal environmental taxation in the presence of other taxes : General equilibrium analyses," Other publications TiSEM 5d4b7517-c5c8-4ef6-ab76-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
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    Cited by:

    1. Simon Quemin & Christian de Perthuis, 2017. "Transitional restricted linkage between Emissions Trading Schemes," Working Papers 1701, Chaire Economie du climat.
    2. Baran Doda, Simon Quemin, Luca Taschini, 2017. "A theory of gains from trade in multilaterally linked ETSs," GRI Working Papers 275, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    3. Guy Meunier, 2015. "Prices vs. quantities in presence of a second, unpriced, externality," Working Papers hal-01242040, HAL.

    More about this item


    Climate Policies; Cap-and-Trade Mechanisms; Emission Tax; Uncertainty;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming


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