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The Role of Transaction Costs and Risk Premia in the Determination of Climate Change Policy Responses

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  • Stronzik, Marcus
  • Hunt, Alistair
  • Eckermann, Frauke
  • Taylor, Tim

Abstract

Transaction costs and risk have generally not been taken into account in assessing the Kyoto mechanisms JI, CDM and emissions trading. However, they can have a significant influence. With regard to the project-based mechanisms, the factor that most determines the influence of transaction costs on the implementation of a project is the size of the particular project. For some projects transaction costs amount up to over 1000 ?/ton C reduced, which proves the necessity of streamlining procedures, as recognised in the Marrakesh Accords. With regard to international emissions trading it will be of high importance to build on experience with past national emissions trading schemes in order to keep transaction costs low. However, international trading schemes of the type envisaged under the Kyoto Protocol are likely to have significant issues that have not been addressed in previous national experience. In addition to transaction costs, we determine country risk premia to account for the fact that projects in different states may induce different levels of risk of default or project failure. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 03-59.

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Date of creation: 2003
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:1381

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Related research

Keywords: transaction costs; risk premia; Kyoto Protocol; emissions trading; small scale projects;

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References

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  1. Stavins, Robert, 2004. "Environmental Economics," Discussion Papers dp-04-54, Resources For the Future.
  2. Joskow, Paul L & Schmalensee, Richard & Bailey, Elizabeth M, 1998. "The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 669-85, September.
  3. Montero, Juan-Pablo, 1998. "Marketable pollution permits with uncertainty and transaction costs," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 27-50, March.
  4. Dailami, Mansoor & Leipziger, Danny, 1997. "Infrastructure project finance and capital flows : a new perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1861, The World Bank.
  5. Aidt, T.S.Toke Skovsgaard & Dutta, Jayasri, 2004. "Transitional politics: emerging incentive-based instruments in environmental regulation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 458-479, May.
  6. Lata Gangadharan, 2000. "Transaction Costs in Pollution Markets: An Empirical Study," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(4), pages 601-614.
  7. Woerdman, Edwin, 2001. "Emissions trading and transaction costs: analyzing the flaws in the discussion," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 293-304, August.
  8. Richard Cantor & Frank Packer, 1996. "Determinants and impact of sovereign credit ratings," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 37-53.
  9. Jotzo, Frank & Michaelowa, Axel, 2001. "Estimating the CDM market under the Bonn Agreement," HWWA Discussion Papers 145, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
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Cited by:
  1. Alfred Endres & Cornelia Ohl, 2005. "Kyoto, Europe?—An Economic Evaluation of the European Emission Trading Directive," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 17-39, January.
  2. Betz, Regina, 2006. "Emissions trading to combat climate change: The impact of scheme design on transaction costs," 2005 Conference (49th), February 9-11, 2005, Coff's Harbour, Australia 139304, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.

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