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Polit-ökonomische Grenzen des Emissionshandels und ihre Implikationen für die klima- und energiepolitische Instrumentenwahl

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  • Gawel, Erik
  • Strunz, Sebastian
  • Lehmann, Paul

Abstract

Dieser Beitrag untersucht die Folgen einer polit-ökonomischen Betrachtung des europäischen Emissionshandels (ETS) für die ökonomisch optimale klima- und energiepolitische Instrumentenwahl. Die aus dem wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Raum prominent vorgetragene Forderung, die energiepolitische Regulierung ausschließlich auf einen möglichst perfekten Emissionshandel zu beschränken und auf ergänzende technologiepolitische Eingriffe zu verzichten, beruht auf drei restriktiven und zugleich realitätsfremden Annahmen: Dass 1) der anthropogene Klimawandel die einzige für die Energieversorgung relevante Externalität ist, daher 2) nur die Begrenzung des CO2-Ausstoßes ein legitimes Umweltziel darstellt und 3) der ETS über ein insoweit optimales Design verfügt, kann jedoch in der Realität nicht vorausgesetzt werden. Vielmehr erscheint der realtypische Emissionshandel aus politökonomischer Sicht als das Resultat eines politischen Regulierungsspiels. Die sich hieraus ergebenden polit-ökonomischen Grenzen des Emissionshandels können flankierende Politikinstrumente insofern legitimieren, als dass die ergänzende Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien (EE) die gesellschaftliche Durchsetzung der gegebenen Klimaziele erleichtert, indem politisch weniger widerstandsträchtige Verteilungsschlüssel der Klimalasten gesellschaftlich organisiert werden. Die Berücksichtigung der tatsächlich bestehenden technologiepolitischen Ziele im Rahmen der Energiewende verstärkt die Notwendigkeit flankierender Politikinstrumente. Denn ein Energiewende-Emissionshandel, der als Einzelinstrument den vollständigen Zielfächer der Energiewende herbeiführt, wäre schon in der Theorie überfordert, geschweige denn in der politischen Praxis durchsetzbar. Die polit-ökonomischen Bedingungen der Energiepolitik zeigen daher zusätzliche Begründungen für einen Policy Mix auf. -- In this paper, we analyse the rationale for an energy policy mix when the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is considered from a public choice perspective. That is, we argue that the economic textbook model of the ETS implausibly assumes 1) anthropogenic climate change as the only relevant externality related to energy provision, 2) thus, climate protection as the single objective of policy intervention and 3) efficient policy design. Contrary to these assumptions, we propose that the ETS originates from a political bargaining game within a context of multiple policy objectives. In particular, the emissions cap is negotiated between regulators and emitters with the emitters' abatement costs as crucial bargaining variable. This public choice view yields striking implications for the optimal policy mix. Whereas the textbook model implies that the ETS alone provides sufficient climate protection, our analysis calls for additional policies. Hence, support for renewable energies contributes to a more effective ETS-design and may even increase the overall efficiency of climate and energy policy if other externalities and political objectives besides climate protection are considered.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS) in its series UFZ Discussion Papers with number 2/2013.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:ufzdps:22013

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  1. Lehmann, Paul & Gawel, Erik, 2011. "Why should support schemes for renewable electricity complement the EU emissions trading scheme?," UFZ Discussion Papers 5/2011, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
  2. Matthias Kalkuhl & Ottmar Edenhofer & Kai Lessmann, 2011. "Learning or Lock-in: Optimal Technology Policies to Support Mitigation," CESifo Working Paper Series 3422, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Valentina Bosetti & Carlo Carraro & Emanuele Massetti & Massimo Tavoni, 2007. "International Energy R&D Spillovers and the Economics of Greenhouse Gas Atmospheric Stabilization," Working Papers 2007.82, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  4. Jensen, Stine Grenaa & Skytte, Klaus, 2003. "Simultaneous attainment of energy goals by means of green certificates and emission permits," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 63-71, January.
  5. Christoph Böhringer & Andreas Lange, 2012. "Der europäische Emissionszertifikatehandel: Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven," Wirtschaftsdienst, Springer, vol. 92(1), pages 12-16, January.
  6. Heindl, Peter & Löschel, Andreas, 2012. "Designing emissions trading in practice general considerations and experiences from the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-009, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  7. Lori Bennear & Robert Stavins, 2007. "Second-best theory and the use of multiple policy instruments," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 37(1), pages 111-129, May.
  8. Manuel Frondel & Nolan Ritter & Christoph M. Schmidt & Colin Vance, 2009. "Economic Impacts from the Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies - The German Experience," Ruhr Economic Papers 0156, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
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