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Clustering or competition? The foreign investment behaviour of German banks

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  • Lipponer, Alexander
  • Buch, Claudia M.

Abstract

The presence of other firms in a foreign market can have a double-edged effect on the profitability of new entrants. Firstly, a larger presence of other firms implies more competition and thus lowers the earnings prospects of new entrants. Secondly, there might be positive spill-over effects between the activities of new and old entrants, which can lead to clustering effects. Such clustering of firms in foreign markets has been documented in the empirical literature on foreign direct investment (FDI) of nonfinancial firms, but little evidence is available for banks. This paper analyses whether banks have a tendency to cluster abroad and whether smaller banks in particular invest in markets where other banks are already present. We use firm-level evidence on the foreign direct investments of German banks for the period 1997-2000 to test this hypothesis. Our results suggest that German banks are indeed more active in markets in which other German banks are already present. However, once we control for countryfixed effects, the negative competition effect dominates. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre in its series Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies with number 2004,06.

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Date of creation: 2004
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp1:1819

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Keywords: international banking; clustering; foreign direct investment;

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References

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  1. Head, Charles Keith & Mayer, Thierry, 2002. "Market Potential and the Location of Japanese Investment in the European Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 3455, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Crozet, M. & Mayer, T. & Micchielli, J.L., 2000. "How Do Firms Agglomerate? A Study of FDI in France?," Papiers d'Economie Mathématique et Applications 2000.50, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  3. Valev, N, 1996. "International Lending by US Banks," Papers 96-010, Purdue University, Krannert School of Management - Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER).
  4. Daniel E. Nolle & Rama Seth, 1996. "Do banks follow their customers abroad?," Research Paper 9620, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  5. Barry, Frank & Görg, Holger & Strobl, Eric, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investment, Agglomerations and Demonstration Effects: An Empirical Investigation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2907, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Barth, James R. & Caprio Jr, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2001. "The regulation and supervision of banks around the world - a new database," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2588, The World Bank.
  7. Focarelli, Dario & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2001. "The patterns of cross-border bank mergers and shareholdings in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2305-2337, December.
  8. Wheeler, David & Mody, Ashoka, 1992. "International investment location decisions : The case of U.S. firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 57-76, August.
  9. Allen N. Berger & Qinglei Dai & Steven Ongena & David C. Smith, 2002. "To what extent will the banking industry be globalized? a study of bank nationality and reach in 20 European nations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-25, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  10. Berger, Allen N. & Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle & DeYoung, Robert, 2004. "Exporting financial institutions management via foreign direct investment mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 333-366, April.
  11. Robert C. Feenstra & James R. Markusen & Andrew K. Rose, 2001. "Using the gravity equation to differentiate among alternative theories of trade," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(2), pages 430-447, May.
  12. Head, Keith & Ries, John & Swenson, Deborah, 1995. "Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 223-247, May.
  13. Angela Chang & Shubham Chaudhuri & Jith Jayaratne, 1997. "Rational herding and the spatial clustering of bank branches: an empirical analysis," Research Paper 9724, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  14. Peter Egger, 2002. "An Econometric View on the Estimation of Gravity Models and the Calculation of Trade Potentials," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 297-312, 02.
  15. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2004. "FDI versus cross-border financial services: The globalisation of German banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  16. Claessens, Stijn & Demirguc-Kunt, Asl[iota] & Huizinga, Harry, 2001. "How does foreign entry affect domestic banking markets?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 891-911, May.
  17. Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle, 2004. "Cross-border bank mergers: What lures the rare animal?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2077-2102, September.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Emilia Magdalena Jurzyk & Olena Havrylchyk, 2010. "Inherited or Earned? Performance of Foreign Banks in Central and Eastern Europe," IMF Working Papers 10/4, International Monetary Fund.
  2. Kleimeier, Stefanie & Sander, Harald & Heuchemer, Sylvia, 2013. "Financial crises and cross-border banking: New evidence," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 884-915.
  3. repec:wii:bpaper:bowp:067 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Caterina Giannetti & Nicola Jentzsch & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2010. "Information Sharing and Cross-border Entry in European Banking," CEIS Research Paper 178, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 21 Dec 2010.
  5. Claudia M. Buch & Gayle L. DeLong, 2008. "Banking Globalization: International Consolidation and Mergers in Banking," IAW Discussion Papers 38, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  6. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2007. "FDI versus exports: Evidence from German banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 805-826, March.
  7. Bellak, Christian & Leibrecht, Markus & Riedl, Aleksandra, 2008. "Labour costs and FDI flows into Central and Eastern European Countries: A survey of the literature and empirical evidence," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 17-37, March.
  8. Wezel, Torsten, 2004. "Foreign Bank Entry into Emerging Economies: An Empirical Assessment of the Determinants and Risks Predicated on German FDI Data," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,01, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.

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