Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Impact of Female Employment on the Likelihood and Timing of Second and Higher Order Pregnancies


Author Info

  • Harvey S. James Jr.

    (University of Hartford)


This paper examines the effects of married women's employment on their fertility behavior in the United States. Data from the National Survey of Family and Households are used in a hazard model to determine whether a woman's employment status affected the rate at which she had a second, third or fourth pregnancy. The study finds that the labor-force participation of women does have an important effect on the spacing of pregnancies, although the effect is less pronounced in the transition to third pregnancy. In addition, this paper demonstrates that an appropriate method of modeling the fertility and female employment relationship is one in which employment is seen to influence the rate of childbearing.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL:
Download Restriction: no

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 9612002.

as in new window
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 13 Dec 1996
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:9612002

Note: Type of Document - Word 7.0; prepared on IBM PC Pentium running Windows95; to print on HP laserjet 4; pages: 24; figures: none
Contact details of provider:
Web page:

Related research

Keywords: Fertility; female employment; hazard models;

Find related papers by JEL classification:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters, in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. J. Stycos & Robert Weller, 1967. "Female working roles and fertility," Demography, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 210-217, March.
  3. Newman, John L & McCulloch, Charles E, 1984. "A Hazard Rate Approach to the Timing of Births," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 939-61, July.
  4. H. Theodore Groat & Randy Workman & Arthur Neal, 1976. "Labor force participation and family formation: A study of working mothers," Demography, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 115-125, February.
  5. James J. Heckman & V. Joseph Hotz & James R. Walker, . "New Evidence on the Timing and Spacing of Births," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 85-1, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  6. Frank Mott, 1972. "Fertility, life cycle stage and female labor Force participation in Rhode Island: A retrospective overview," Demography, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 173-185, February.
  7. Glen Cain & Adriana Weininger, 1973. "Economic determinants of fertility: Results from cross sectional aggregate data," Demography, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 205-223, May.
  8. O. Collver, 1968. "Women's work participation and fertility in metropolitan areas," Demography, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 55-60, March.
  9. De Cooman, Eric & Ermisch, John F & Joshi, Heather, 1985. "The Next Birth and the Labour Market: A Dynamic Model of Births in England and Wales," CEPR Discussion Papers 37, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Matthaei, Julie A, 1980. "Consequences of the Rise of the Two-Earner Family: The Breakdown of the Sexual Division of Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 198-202, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Maria Gutierrez-Domenech, 2002. "The Impact of the Labour Market on the Timing of Marriage and Births in Spain," CEP Discussion Papers dp0556, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  2. Krister Sandberg & Thomas Westerberg, 2005. "Spatial Dependence and the Determinants of Child Births in Swedish Municipalities 1974-2002," ERSA conference papers ersa05p431, European Regional Science Association.


This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


Access and download statistics


When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:9612002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.