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Where Are the Babies? Labor Market Conditions and Fertility in Europe

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  • Adsera, Alicia

    ()
    (Princeton University)

Abstract

Cross-country differences in both the age at first birth and fertility are substantial in Europe. The paper uses the European Community Household Panel 1994-2000 to investigate the relationship between unemployment of both women (and their spouses) with the timing and number of children. Maternity postponement is acute in countries with high and persistent unemployment since the mid 1980s. Moreover, the paper examines how fertility varies, for a similar level of unemployment, as a function of country-specific institutional arrangements. Wide access to part-time and to permanent positions (such as those in the public sector) is correlated with faster transitions to births. Short-term contracts are associated with delayed fertility instead.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 1576.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2005
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: European Journal of Population, 2011, 27 (1), 1 - 32
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1576

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Keywords: fertility; short-term contracts; part-time; public sector; unemployment; maternity benefits;

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References

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  1. Ronsen, Marit & Sundstrom, Marianne, 1996. "Maternal Employment in Scandinavia: A Comparison of the After-Birth Employment Activity of Norwegian and Swedish Women," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 267-85, August.
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  5. Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert Tamura, 1994. "Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition), pages 323-350 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Siv S. Gustafsson & Shirley Dex & Cécile M. M. P. Wetzels & Jan Dirk Vlasblom, 1996. "Women`s labor force transitions in connection with childbirth: A panel data comparison between Germany, Sweden and Great Britain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 223-246.
  7. Ronald Lee, 2003. "The Demographic Transition: Three Centuries of Fundamental Change," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 17(4), pages 167-190, Fall.
  8. Bertola, Giuseppe & Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence, 2002. "Labour Market Institutions and Demographic Employment Patterns," CEPR Discussion Papers, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers 3448, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Øystein Kravdal, 2001. "The High Fertility of College Educated Women in Norway," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 5(6), pages 187-216, December.
  10. Suzanne Bianchi, 2000. "Maternal employment and time with children: Dramatic change or surprising continuity?," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 401-414, November.
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  13. Siv Gustafsson & Frank P. Stafford, 1994. "Three Regimes of Child Care: The United States, the Netherlands, and Sweden," NBER Chapters, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, in: Social Protection versus Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-Off?, pages 333-362 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Marit RÃnsen & Marianne SundstrÃm, 1996. "Maternal employment in Scandinavia: A comparison of the after-birth employment activity of Norwegian and Swedish women," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 267-285.
  15. Pedro Mira & Namkee Ahn, 2001. "Job bust, baby bust?: Evidence from Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 505-521.
  16. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
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Citations

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Le variabili nascoste delle contro-riforme pensionistiche
    by Lorenzo Battisti in Pensieri Economici on 2012-03-11 21:08:00
Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
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Cited by:
  1. Tomas Kögel, 2006. "An explanation of the positive correlation between fertility and female employment across Western European countries," Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics, Loughborough University 2006_11, Department of Economics, Loughborough University.
  2. Emilia Del Bono & Andrea Weber & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2011. "Fertility and Economic Instability: The Role of Unemployment and Job Displacement," Economics working papers, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2011-01, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  3. Ariane Pailhé & Anne Solaz, 2012. "The influence of employment uncertainty on childbearing in France: A tempo or quantum effect?," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 26(1), pages 1-40, January.
  4. Marah Curtis & Jane Waldfogel, 2009. "Fertility Timing of Unmarried and Married Mothers: Evidence on Variation Across U.S. Cities from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, Springer, vol. 28(5), pages 569-588, October.
  5. Alicia Adsera, 2011. "The interplay of employment uncertainty and education in explaining second births in Europe," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 25(16), pages 513-544, August.
  6. A. Bovenberg, 2005. "Balancing Work and Family Life during the Life Course," De Economist, Springer, Springer, vol. 153(4), pages 399-423, December.
  7. Melinda Mills & Nicoletta Balbo, 2011. "The influence of the family network on the realisation of fertility intentions," Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 9(1), pages 179-206.
  8. Anja Oppermann, 2012. "A New Color in the Picture: The Impact of Educational Fields on Fertility in Western Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 496, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).

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