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Capitalising the Value of Free Schools: The Impact of Supply Characteristics and Uncertainty

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Author Info

  • Paul Cheshire
  • Stephen Sheppard

    ()
    (Williams College)

Abstract

There has been a growing literature in both the US (for example Haurin and Brasington 1996, and Black 1999) and the UK (for example Gibbons & Machin, 2003) that estimates the way in which school quality is capitalised into house prices. Cheshire and Sheppard 1995 and 1999 estimated hedonic models in which the quality of the secondary school to which a household was assigned was a significant variable which provided evidence that secondary school quality was being capitalised into the price of houses. In contrast Gibbons and Machin concluded that primary schools were more significant. Each of these analyses is predicated on the assumption that the value of local schools should be reflected in the value of houses. We argue here that this is rather too simple. We should expect variation in the capitalised price of a given school quality at either primary or secondary level according to the elasticity of supply of 'school quality' in the local market, the certainty with which that quality can be expected to be maintained over time and the suitability of the dwelling to accommodate children. These factors will vary systematically between and perhaps within cities. This paper explores the sources and the impact of such variations as well as the impact of model specification. The results provide new evidence on the complex and subtle ways in which housing markets capitalise the value of local public goods such as school quality and perhaps most importantly suggest that this is highly non-linear: houses in the catchment areas of only the best state schools command substantial premiums but such capitalised values can be very substantial indeed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, Williams College in its series Department of Economics Working Papers with number 2004-17.

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Date of creation: Mar 2004
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Publication status: published in Economic Journal, November 2004, v. 114, iss. 499, pp. F397-424.
Handle: RePEc:wil:wileco:2004-17

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Keywords: House values; hedonic models; public schools;

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References

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  1. Gibbons, Steve & Machin, Stephen, 2003. "Valuing English primary schools," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 197-219, March.
  2. Dennis Leech & Erick Campos, 2003. "Is comprehensive education really free?: a case-study of the effects of secondary school admissions policies on house prices in one local area," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 166(1), pages 135-154.
  3. Sandra E. Black, 1997. "Do better schools matter? Parental valuation of elementary education," Research Paper 9729, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  4. Brasington, David M., 2002. "Edge versus center: finding common ground in the capitalization debate," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 524-541, November.
  5. Cheshire, Paul & Sheppard, Stephen, 1998. "Estimating the Demand for Housing, Land, and Neighbourhood Characteristics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(3), pages 357-82, August.
  6. Oates, Wallace E, 1969. "The Effects of Property Taxes and Local Public Spending on Property Values: An Empirical Study of Tax Capitalization and the Tiebout Hypothesis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(6), pages 957-71, Nov./Dec..
  7. Haurin, Donald R. & Brasington, David, 1996. "School Quality and Real House Prices: Inter- and Intrametropolitan Effects," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 351-368, December.
  8. Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
  9. BRUECKNER, Jan K. & THISSE, Jacques-François & ZENOU, Yves, . "Why is central Paris rich and downtown Detroit poor? An amenity-based theory," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1370, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  10. Cheshire, Paul & Sheppard, Stephen, 1995. "On the Price of Land and the Value of Amenities," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 62(246), pages 247-67, May.
  11. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Machin, Stephen, 2011. "Houses and schools: Valuation of school quality through the housing market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 723-729.
  2. Stephen Machin, 2011. "Houses and schools: valuation of school quality through the housing market: EALE 2010 presidential address," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 47495, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  3. Stephen Machin, 2011. "Houses and Schools: Valuation of School Quality through then Housing Market - EALE 2010 Presidential Address," CEP Occasional Papers 29, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  4. Bark, R.H. & Osgood, D.E. & Colby, B.G. & Katz, G. & Stromberg, J., 2009. "Habitat preservation and restoration: Do homebuyers have preferences for quality habitat?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(5), pages 1465-1475, March.
  5. Stephen Gibbons & Stephen Machin, 2008. "Valuing school quality, better transport, and lower crime: evidence from house prices," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(1), pages 99-119, spring.
  6. Christian A. L. Hilber, 2011. "The Economics Implications of House Price Capitalization A Survey of an Emerging Literature," SERC Discussion Papers 0091, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
  7. Fack, Gabrielle & Grenet, Julien, 2010. "When do better schools raise housing prices? Evidence from Paris public and private schools," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1-2), pages 59-77, February.
  8. Dhar, Paramita & Ross, Stephen L, 2012. "School district quality and property values: Examining differences along school district boundaries," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 18-25.
  9. Yadavalli, Anita P. & Florax, Raymond J.G.M., 2013. "The Effect of School Quality on House Prices: A Meta-Regression Analysis," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 151291, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  10. Hilber, Christian A.L. & Mayer, Christopher, 2009. "Why do households without children support local public schools? Linking house price capitalization to school spending," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 74-90, January.
  11. Clapp, John M. & Nanda, Anupam & Ross, Stephen L., 2008. "Which school attributes matter? The influence of school district performance and demographic composition on property values," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 451-466, March.
  12. Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong & Yinger, John, 2011. "The capitalization of school quality into house values: A review," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 30-48, March.
  13. Paul Cheshire, 2009. "Policies for mixed communities: faith-based displacement activity?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 30783, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  14. Sofia N. Andreou & Panos Pashardes, 2013. "Consumers’ Valuation of Academic and Equality-inducing Aspects of School Performance in England," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 09-2013, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
  15. Cormac O'Dea & Ian Preston, 2012. "The distributional impact of public spending in the UK," IFS Working Papers W12/06, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  16. Wenjie Wu, 2012. "Does Public Investment Spur the Land Market?: Evidence from Transport Improvement in Beijing," SERC Discussion Papers 0116, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
  17. Chugunov, D., 2013. "Impact of School Quality and Neighborhoods on Housing Prices in Moscow," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 17(1), pages 87-112.
  18. John Glen & Joseph G. Nellis, 2010. "“The Price You Pay”: The Impact of State-Funded Secondary School Performance on Residential Property Values in England," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 57(4), pages 405-428, December.
  19. Bhattacharjee, Arnab & Jensen-Butler, Chris, 2013. "Estimation of the spatial weights matrix under structural constraints," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 617-634.

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