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The economic consequences of health shocks

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  • Wagstaff, Adam

Abstract

While there is a great deal of anecdotal evidence on the economic effects of adverse health shocks, there is relatively little hard empirical evidence. The author builds on recent empirical work to explore in the context of postreform Vietnam two related issues: (1) how far household income and medical care spending responds to health shocks, and (2) how far household consumption is protected against health shocks. The results suggest that adverse health shocks - captured by negative changes in body mass index (BMI) - are associated with reductions in earned income. This appears to be only partly - if at all - due to a reverse feedback from income changes to BMI changes. By contrast, there is a hint - the relevant coefficient is not significant - that adverse BMI shocks may result in increases in unearned income. This may reflect additional gifts, remittances, and so on, from family and friends following the health shock. Medical spending is found to increase following an adverse health shock, but not among those with health insurance. The impact for the uninsured is large, equal in absolute size to the income loss associated with a BMI shock. The lack of impact for the insured points to complete insurance against the medical care costs associated with health shocks, and is consistent with the very generous coverage of Vietnam's health insurance program in this period. The question arises: have Vietnamese households been able to hold their food and nonfood consumption constant in the face of these income reductions and extra medical care outlays? The results suggest not. For the sample as a whole, both food and nonfood consumption are found to be responsive to health shocks, indicating an inability to smooth nonmedical consumption in the face of health shocks. Further analysis reveals some interesting differences across different groups within the sample. Households with insurance come no closer to smoothing nonmedical consumption than uninsured households. Furthermore, and somewhat counterintuitively, better-off households - including insured households - fare worse than poorer households in smoothing their nonmedical consumption in the face of health shocks, despite the fact that in the case of insured households there are no medical bills associated with an adverse health event. Why the poor rely on dissaving and borrowing to such an extent, and do not apparently reduce their food and nonfood consumption following an adverse health shock while the better-off do, may be because the levels of food and nonfood consumption of the poor are simply too low relative to basic needs to enable them to cut back in the face of an adverse BMI shock.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 3644.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 2005
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3644

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Keywords: Safety Nets and Transfers; Environmental Economics&Policies; Health Economics&Finance; Inequality; Rural Poverty Reduction;

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References

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  1. Robert M. Townsend, . "Risk and Insurance in Village India," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 91-3a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  2. Robert M. Townsend, 1995. "Consumption Insurance: An Evaluation of Risk-Bearing Systems in Low-Income Economies," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 83-102, Summer.
  3. Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1998. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," JCPR Working Papers 41, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  4. Richard Blundell & Luigi Pistaferri & Ian Preston, 2004. "Consumption inequality and partial insurance," IFS Working Papers W04/28, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  5. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1997. "Are the poor less well-insured? Evidence on vulnerability to income risk in rural China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1863, The World Bank.
  6. Pramila Krishnan & Stefan Dercon, 1997. "In sickness and in health ... risk-sharing within households in rural Ethiopia," CSAE Working Paper Series 1997-12, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  7. Bloom, Gerald, 1998. "Primary health care meets the market in China and Vietnam," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 233-252, June.
  8. Michael Grossman, 1972. "The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gros72-1, May.
  9. World Bank, 2001. "Growing Healthy : A Review of Vietnam's Health Sector," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15512, The World Bank.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Grimm, Michael, 2010. "Mortality and survivors' consumption," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4355, Paris Dauphine University.
  2. Pablo Gottret & George J. Schieber & Hugh R. Waters, 2008. "Good Practices in Health Financing : Lessons from Reforms in Low and Middle-Income Countries," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6442, October.
  3. Lindelow, Magnus & Wagstaff, Adam, 2005. "Health shocks in China : are the poor and uninsured less protected ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3740, The World Bank.
  4. Jacky MATHONNAT & Jean-François BRUN & Martine AUDIBERT & Marie-Claire HENRY, 2006. "Malaria, Production and Income of the Producers of Coffee and Cocoa: an Analysis from Survey Data in Côte d’Ivoire. Malaria, coffee and cocoa production and income," Working Papers 200631, CERDI.
  5. Halla, Martin & Zweimüller, Martina, 2011. "The Effect of Health on Income: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Commuting Accidents," IZA Discussion Papers 5833, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Mendola, Mariapia & Bredenkamp, Caryn & Gragnolati, Michele, 2007. "The impoverishing effect of adverse health events : evidence from the western Balkans," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4444, The World Bank.
  7. Charles Kenny, 2009. "There's more to life than money: Exploring the levels|growth paradox in income and health," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(1), pages 24-41.
  8. Achyuta Adhvaryu & Anant Nyshadham, 2011. "Labor Complementarities and Health in the Agricultural Household," Working Papers 996, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  9. Jeannette Amaya Lara & Fernando Ruiz Gómez, 2011. "Determining factors of catastrophic health spending in Bogota, Colombia," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 83-100, June.
  10. Menon, Nidhiya & van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana & Nguyen, Huong, 2014. "Women’s Land Rights and Children’s Human Capital in Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 18-31.
  11. Liu, Dan & Tsegai, Daniel W., 2011. "The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) and its implications for access to health care and medical expenditure: Evidence from rural China," Discussion Papers 116746, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).

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