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Do school facilities matter? : the case of the Peruvian Social Fund (FONCODES)

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Author Info

  • Paxson, Christina
  • Schady, Norbert

Abstract

Since its creation in 1991, the Peruvian Social Fund (FONCODES) has spent about US$570 million funding micro-projects throughout Peru. Many of these projects have involved building and renovating school facilities. The authors analyze the targeting and impact of FONCODES investments in the education sector, using data from FONCODES, Peru's population census, Peru's 1994 and 1995 Living Standards Measurement Surveys, and a 1996 household survey conducted by the Peruvian Statistical Institute. They present their results based on various descriptive and econometric techniques, including non-parametric regressions, differences-in-differences, and instrumental variablesestimators. They show that FONCODES projects in the education sector have reached poor districts and, to the extent they live in those districts, poor households. FONCODES has had a positive effect on school attendance rates for young children, but not on the likelihood that children will be at an appropriate school level for their age. Among other recommendations, they suggest that FONCODES consider random assignment of some education projects for a sub-sample of the population, to test the robustness of the study's assumptions and results. Lack of disaggregated data on such measures as the time children spend in school, pupil-teacher ratios, and scholastic achievement precluded analysis of the impact of FONCODES education projects on school quality. Collecting such data, and understanding how improvements in school infrastructure interact with other school-level changes to produce more learning, should be a research priority.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2229.

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Date of creation: 30 Nov 1999
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2229

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Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies; Poverty Monitoring&Analysis; Public Health Promotion; Health Economics&Finance; Decentralization; Poverty Monitoring&Analysis; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Health Economics&Finance; Environmental Economics&Policies; Housing&Human Habitats;

References

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  1. Bruce D. Meyer, 1994. "Natural and Quasi- Experiments in Economics," NBER Technical Working Papers 0170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Alan Krueger, 1997. "Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions," Working Papers, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section. 758, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  3. Schady, Norbert R., 2000. "Picking the poor : indicators for geographic targeting in Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2477, The World Bank.
  4. David Card, 1989. "The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 3069, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Eric A. Hanushek, . "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," Wallis Working Papers, University of Rochester - Wallis Institute of Political Economy WP3, University of Rochester - Wallis Institute of Political Economy.
  6. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
  7. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 1999. "School Inputs And Educational Outcomes In South Africa," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 1047-1084, August.
  8. Timothy Besley & Anne Case, 1994. "Unnatural Experiments? Estimating the Incidence of Endogenous Policies," NBER Working Papers 4956, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1999. "Income gains to the poor from workfare - estimates for Argentina's TRABAJAR Program," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2149, The World Bank.
  10. Angrist, Joshua D & Lavy, Victor, 1997. "The Effect of a Change in Language of Instruction on the Returns to Schooling in Morocco," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages S48-76, January.
  11. Friedlander, Daniel & Robins, Philip K, 1995. "Evaluating Program Evaluations: New Evidence on Commonly Used Nonexperimental Methods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 923-37, September.
  12. Kremer, Michael R, 1995. "Research on Schooling: What We Know and What We Don't: A Comment," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 247-54, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Philippe De Vreyer & Javier Herrera & Sandrine Mesplé-Somps, 2002. "Consumption growth and spatial poverty traps: an analysis of the effects of social services and community infrastructures on living standards in rural Peru," Working Papers, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) DT/2002/17, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation), revised Oct 2003.
  2. Schady, Norbert R., 2001. "Who participates : the supply of volunteer labor and the distribution of government programs in rural Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2671, The World Bank.
  3. Baird, Sarah & McIntosh, Craig & Özler, Berk, 2013. "The regressive demands of demand-driven development," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 27-41.
  4. Julie van Domelen, 2002. "Social funds: evidence on targeting, impacts and sustainability," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 627-642.
  5. Silva, Samantha de & Sum, June-wei, 2008. "Social funds as an instrument of social protection : an analysis of lending trends - FY2000-2007," Social Protection Discussion Papers 45179, The World Bank.
  6. César P. Bouillon & Luis Tejerina, 2006. "Do We Know What Works?: A Systematic Review of Impact Evaluations of Social Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications 80443, Inter-American Development Bank.
  7. Schady, Norbert R., 2002. "The (positive) effect of macroeconomic crises on the schoolingand employment decisions of children in a middle-income country," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2762, The World Bank.

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