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Wealth, weather risk, and the composition and profitability of agricultural investments

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  • Rosenzweig, Mark R.
  • Binswanger, Hans P.

Abstract

Despite the growing evidence that farmers in low-income environments are risk-averse, there has been little empirical evidence on the importance of risk in shaping the actual allocation of production resources among farmers differentiated by wealth. The authors use panel data on investments in rural India to examine how the composition of productive and nonproductive asset holdings varies across farmers with different levels of total wealth and across farmers facing different degrees of weather risk. Income variability is a prominent feature of the experience of rural agents in low-income countries. The authors report evidence, based on measures of rainfall variability, that the agricultural investment portfolio behavior of farmers in such settings reflects risk aversion, due evidently to limitations on consumption-soothing mechanisms such as crop insurance or credit markets. The authors'results suggest that uninsured weather risk is a significant cause of lower efficiency and lower average incomes: a one-standard-deviation decrease in weather risk (measured by the standard deviation of the timing of the rainy season) would raise average profits by up to 35 percent among farmers in the lowest wealth quartile. Moreover, rainfall variability induces a more unequal distribution of average incomes for a given distribution of wealth. Wealthier farmers are willing to absorb significant risk without giving up profits to reduce production risk. Smaller farmers have to invest their limited wealth in ways that reduce their exposure to risk at the cost of lower profit rates. The authors found that at high levels of rainfall variability, differences in rates of profit per unit of agricultural assets were similar across classes of wealth. But over the sample range of rainfall variability, these rates of profit were always higher for the poorer farmers than for the wealthier ones, suggesting that the disadvantages of small farmers in risk diffusion are more than offset by their labor cost advantage.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 1055.

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Date of creation: 31 Dec 1992
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1055

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Keywords: International Terrorism&Counterterrorism; Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; Health Economics&Finance; Financial Intermediation;

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References

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  1. Just, Richard E. & Pope, Rulon D., 1978. "Stochastic specification of production functions and economic implications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 67-86, February.
  2. repec:feb:artefa:0008 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Hans Binswanger, 1980. "Attitudes toward risk: Experimental measurement in rural india," Artefactual Field Experiments 00009, The Field Experiments Website.
  4. Dwayne Benjamin, 1988. "Household Composition and Labor Demand: A Test of Rural Labor," Working Papers 624, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  5. Meyer, Jack, 1987. "Two-moment Decision Models and Expected Utility Maximization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 421-30, June.
  6. Paxton, C.H., 1988. "Household Savings In Thailand: Responses To Income Shocks," Papers 137, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
  7. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  8. Bardhan, Pranab K, 1973. "Size, Productivity, and Returns to Scale: An Analysis of Farm-Level Data in Indian Agriculture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(6), pages 1370-86, Nov.-Dec..
  9. Lau, Lawrence J., 1976. "A characterization of the normalized restricted profit function," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 131-163, February.
  10. Feder, Gershon, 1977. "The impact of uncertainty in a class of objective functions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 504-512, December.
  11. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Pitt, Mark M., 1984. "Agricultural Prices, Food Consumption and the Health and Productivity of Farmers," Bulletins 7471, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  12. Benjamin, Dwayne, 1992. "Household Composition, Labor Markets, and Labor Demand: Testing for Separation in Agricultural Household Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 287-322, March.
  13. Amartya K. Sen, 1966. "Peasants and Dualism with or without Surplus Labor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74, pages 425.
  14. repec:fth:prinin:244 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Mazumdar, Dipak, 1975. "The Theory of Share-Cropping with Labour Market Dualism," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 42(167), pages 261-71, August.
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