Lock-in, path dependence, and the internationalization of QWERTY
AbstractThis paper looks at the emergence of what is described here as the QWERTY family of standards (QWERTY and its international adaptations QZERTY, AZERTY, and QWERTZ). QWERTY has been described as an inferior solution and an accident of history. However, the analysis here finds that each member of the family represented highly efficient adaptations to specific user needs and technical challenges encountered in their own environments. These findings may be seen to have wider implications given QWERTYâ€™s role as paradigm case in the literature on increasing returns and path dependence, and these are pursued in the paper.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Strathclyde Business School, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1310.
Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published
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More information through EDIRC
QWERTY; innovation; invention; path dependence; technological standards;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-07-28 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2013-07-28 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-HIS-2013-07-28 (Business, Economic & Financial History)
- NEP-HME-2013-07-28 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
- NEP-INO-2013-07-28 (Innovation)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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- Liebowitz, S J & Margolis, Stephen E, 1995.
"Path Dependence, Lock-in, and History,"
Journal of Law, Economics and Organization,
Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 205-26, April.
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- Michael L. Katz & Carl Shapiro, 1994. "Systems Competition and Network Effects," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 93-115, Spring.
- Lewin, Peter, 2001. " The Market Process and the Economics of QWERTY: Two Views," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 65-96, March.
- Andreas Reinstaller & Werner Hölzl, 2009. "Big causes and small events: QWERTY and the mechanization of office work," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(5), pages 999-1031, October.
- Liebowitz, S J & Margolis, Stephen E, 1990. "The Fable of the Keys," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(1), pages 1-25, April.
- Page, Scott E., 2006. "Path Dependence," International Quarterly Journal of Political Science, now publishers, vol. 1(1), pages 87-115, January.
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