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Combining CGE and microsimulation models: Effects on equality of VAT reforms

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  • Turid Åvitsland
  • Jørgen Aasness

    ()
    (Statistics Norway)

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    Abstract

    The effects on the degree of equality of reforms in indirect taxation are analysed by using a microsimulation model of the Norwegian economy subsequent to a CGE model. The two main reforms studied are substitution of a uniform VAT rate on all goods and services and substitution of the non-uniform Norwegian VAT reform of 2001 for the previous, differentiated system. A main characteristic of the non-uniform reform is the halving of the VAT rate on food. All reforms are made public revenue neutral by changes in the VAT rate. Producer prices, pre-tax nominal incomes, wealth and transfers are all exogenous in the microsimulation model. In this paper we feed percentage changes in corresponding variables from the CGE model into the microsimulation model in order to enrich the microsimulation analyses. The non-uniform VAT reform leads to a clear increase in equality while the change in equality concerning the uniform reform is close to 0. With the uniform VAT reform, as opposed to the non-uniform, decompositions show that taking CGE effects into account has a large impact on the degree of equality. Changed producer prices and changed pre-tax nominal incomes, wealth and transfers both contribute to this.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Research Department of Statistics Norway in its series Discussion Papers with number 392.

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    Date of creation: Oct 2004
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    Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:392

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    Keywords: CGE and microsimulation models; "Macro-micro" links; Indirect taxation; VAT reforms; Equality;

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    Cited by:
    1. Behrman, Jere R., 2009. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms, Volume Two: A Practitioner's Guide to Pension, Health, Labor Market, Public Sector Downsizing, Taxation, Decentralization, and Macroeconomic Modeling. A," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(03), pages 396-397, July.
    2. Aline Coudouel & Stefano Paternostro, 2006. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms : A Practitioner’s Guide to Pension, Health, Labor Markets, Public Sector Downsizing, Taxation, Decentralization, and Macroeconomic Modeling, Volume 2," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7041, October.
    3. Labandeira, Xavier & Labeaga, José M. & Rodríguez, Miguel, 2009. "An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5776-5786, December.
    4. Boeters, Stefan & Böhringer, Christoph & Büttner, Thiess & Kraus, Margit, 2006. "Economic Effects of VAT Reform in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-30, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

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