International Women's Soccer and Gender Inequality: Revisited
AbstractA number of authors have identified the determinants of success in international sporting competitions such as the Olympics and soccer’s World Cup. This paper serves to update past work on international women’s soccer performance given the rapid development of the game over the past decade. We compare the determinants of men’s international soccer team performance with that of their female counterparts and find that a different set of variables are important in explaining success for the two genders. While economic and demographic influences hold for both, the impacts of specific political and cultural factors diverge. In particular, Latin heritage predicts men’s success but not women’s, Muslim religious affiliation reduces women’s success but not men’s, and communist political systems tend to improve women’s performance but reduce men’s performance. Several measures of gender equality improve soccer performance for both men’s and women’s soccer suggesting these indicators of gender equality reflect overall levels of development while other measures of equality, particularly those related to women’s access to education, improve women’s soccer performance without enhancing men’s performance.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists in its series Working Papers with number 1118.
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
soccer; football; gender inequality; FIFA World Ranking;
Other versions of this item:
- Joshua Congdon-Hohman & Victor Matheson, 2011. "International Women's Soccer and Gender Inequality: Revisited," Working Papers 1107, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
- I00 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General - - - General
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
- Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Benno Torgler, 2004. "The Determinants of Women?s International Soccer Performances," CREMA Working Paper Series 2004-19, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
- Robert Hoffmann & Lee Chew Ging & Victor Matheson & Bala Ramasamy, 2006. "International women's football and gender inequality," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 13(15), pages 999-1001.
- Robert Hoffmann & Lee Chew Ging & Bala Ramasamy, 2002. "The Socio-Economic Determinants of International Soccer Performance," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 253-272, November.
- Michael W. Klein, 2002. "Work and Play: International Evidence of Gender Equality in Employment and Sports," NBER Working Papers 9081, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert Houston & Dennis Wilson, 2002. "Income, leisure and proficiency: an economic study of football performance," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 9(14), pages 939-943.
- Eva Marikova Leeds & Michael A. Leeds, 2007. "International Soccer Success and National Institutions," Working Papers 0702, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
- Seo-Young Cho, 2013.
"A League of Their Own - Female Soccer, Male Legacy and Women's Empowerment,"
Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers
223, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
- Seo-Young Cho, 2013. "A League of Their Own: Female Soccer, Male Legacy and Women's Empowerment," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1267, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
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