Work and Play: International Evidence of Gender Equality in Employment and Sports
AbstractThis paper addresses the question of whether societies that afford economic opportunity to women offer other opportunities as well. The analysis in this paper shows that the performance of a country's women in international athletic competition reflects the degree of their relative participation in that country's labor market. There is a significant positive relationship across countries between a high ratio of the labor force participation rate of women to the labor force participation rate of men and the number and type of medals won by a country's women in the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics. Teams representing countries with high relative labor force participation rates also were both more likely to qualify for the 1999 Women's Soccer World Cup and to do well in that competition. This effect of relative labor force participation rates on athletic success is found while controlling for a nation's income per capita, population, men's performance in related sporting events, rate of participation of women in government, and fertility rate. These results suggest that the participation of women in a country's labor force is an important reflection of their opportunities in other areas as well.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 9081.
Date of creation: Jul 2002
Date of revision:
Note: LS PE
Contact details of provider:
Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Recreation; Tourism
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2002-07-31 (All new papers)
- NEP-LAB-2002-07-31 (Labour Economics)
- NEP-SPO-2002-07-31 (Sports & Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kuper, Gerard & Sterken, Elmer, 2003.
"Olympic participation and performance since 1896,"
03C19, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
- Andrew B. Bernard & Meghan R. Busse, 2000.
"Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals,"
NBER Working Papers
7998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrew B. Bernard & Meghan R. Busse, 2000. "Who Wins The Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm160, Yale School of Management.
- Kristin Mammen & Christina Paxson, 2000. "Women's Work and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 141-164, Fall.
- Joshua Congdon-Hohman & Victor Matheson, 2011.
"International Women's Soccer and Gender Inequality: Revisited,"
1107, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
- Joshua Congdon-Hohman & Victor Matheson, 2011. "International Women's Soccer and Gender Inequality: Revisited," Working Papers 1118, International Association of Sports Economists & North American Association of Sports Economists.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.