Appropriability and Commercialization: Evidence from MIT Inventions
AbstractAt least since Arrow (1962), the effects of appropriability on invention have been well studied, but there has been little analysis of the effect of appropriability on the commercialization of existing inventions. Exploiting a database of 805 attempts by private firms to commercialize inventions licensed from MIT between 1980 and 1996, we explore the influence of several appropriability mechanisms on the commercialization and termination of projects to develop products based on university inventions. We construct a theoretical model in which the licensee faces technical and market uncertainty, and anticipates that its products will be imitated. We characterize the hazards of commercialization and termination as functions of appropriability mechanisms, including patent scope and the effectiveness of patents as well as learning, lead time, and secrecy in attaining competitive advantage. The model is tested using a competing risks framework that allows for non-parametric unobserved heterogeneity and correlated risks. In our sample, patent strength and secrecy influence termination decisions, while learning, patent scope and lead time influence commercialization decisions.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research in its series Discussion Papers with number 05-017.
Date of creation: Jun 2006
Date of revision:
hazard rates; innovation; optimal stopping problem; patent scope; university licensing; termination;
Other versions of this item:
- Emmanuel Dechenaux & Brent Goldfarb & Scott Shane & Marie Thursby, 2008. "Appropriability and Commercialization: Evidence from MIT Inventions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(5), pages 893-906, May.
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- M. L. Weitzman & K. Roberts, 1979.
"Funding Criteria for Research, Development and Exploration Projects,"
234, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Roberts, Kevin & Weitzman, Martin L, 1981. "Funding Criteria for Research, Development, and Exploration Projects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(5), pages 1261-88, September.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
- McCall, Brian P, 1996.
"Unemployment Insurance Rules, Joblessness, and Part-Time Work,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(3), pages 647-82, May.
- McCall, B.P., 1993. "Unemployment Insurance Rules, Joblessness, and Part-Time Work," Papers 93-07, Minnesota - Industrial Relations Center.
- Marco, Alan C., 2005.
"The option value of patent litigation: Theory and evidence,"
Review of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 14(3-4), pages 323-351.
- Marco, Alan, 2001. "The Option Value of Patent Litigation: Theory and Evidence," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 52, Vassar College Department of Economics, revised Dec 2003.
- Gary L. Lilien & Eunsang Yoon, 1990. "The Timing of Competitive Market Entry: An Exploratory Study of New Industrial Products," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(5), pages 568-585, May.
- Edwin Mansfield, 1986. "Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(2), pages 173-181, February.
- Jerry G. Thursby & Marie C. Thursby, 2000.
"Who is Selling the Ivory Tower? Sources of Growth in University Licensing,"
NBER Working Papers
7718, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jerry G. Thursby & Marie C. Thursby, 2002. "Who Is Selling the Ivory Tower? Sources of Growth in University Licensing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(1), pages 90-104, January.
- Hoppe, Heidrun C. & Lehmann-Grube, Ulrich, 2005. "Innovation timing games: a general framework with applications," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 121(1), pages 30-50, March.
- Bronwyn H. Hall & Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 2001.
"The NBER Patent Citation Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools,"
NBER Working Papers
8498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hall, Bronwyn H & Jaffe, Adam B & Trajtenberg, Manuel, 2001. "The NBER Patent Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools," CEPR Discussion Papers 3094, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hall, B. & Jaffe, A. & Trajtenberg, M., 2001. "The NBER Patent Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights and Methodological Tools," Papers 2001-29, Tel Aviv.
- Mansfield, Edwin & Schwartz, Mark & Wagner, Samuel, 1981. "Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(364), pages 907-18, December.
- Waterson, Michael, 1990. "The Economics of Product Patents," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 860-69, September.
- Kamien, Morton I & Schwartz, Nancy L, 1972. "Timing of Innovations Under Rivalry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(1), pages 43-60, January.
- Han, Aaron & Hausman, Jerry A, 1990. "Flexible Parametric Estimation of Duration and Competing Risk Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January-M.
- Goel, Rajeev K, 1996. "Uncertainty, Patent Length and Firm R&D," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(66), pages 74-80, June.
- Jensen, Richard, 1982. "Adoption and diffusion of an innovation of uncertain profitability," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 182-193, June.
- Richard Jensen, 2003. "Innovative leadership: First-mover advantages in new product adoption," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 97-116, 01.
- Thursby, Jerry G & Jensen, Richard & Thursby, Marie C, 2001. " Objectives, Characteristics and Outcomes of University Licensing: A Survey of Major U.S. Universities," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 59-72, January.
- Dechenaux, Emmanuel & Thursby, Marie & Thursby, Jerry, 2009.
"Shirking, sharing risk and shelving: The role of university license contracts,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 80-91, January.
- Marie Thursby & Jerry Thursby & Emmanuel Dechenaux, 2005. "Shirking, Sharing Risk, and Shelving: The Role of University License Contracts," NBER Working Papers 11128, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
- Nancy T. Gallini, 2002. "The Economics of Patents: Lessons from Recent U.S. Patent Reform," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(2), pages 131-154, Spring.
- Santoro, Michael D. & Chakrabarti, Alok K., 2002. "Firm size and technology centrality in industry-university interactions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1163-1180, September.
- Abbring, Jaap H. & Berg, Gerard J. van den, 2000.
"The non-parametric identification of the mixed proportional hazards competing risks model,"
Serie Research Memoranda
0024, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
- Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2000. "The Non-Parametric Identification of the Mixed Proportional Hazards Competing Risks Model," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-066/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Marie Thursby & Richard Jensen, 2001. "Proofs and Prototypes for Sale: The Licensing of University Inventions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 240-259, March.
- Reinganum, Jennifer F, 1981.
"On the Diffusion of New Technology: A Game Theoretic Approach,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(3), pages 395-405, July.
- Reinganum, Jennifer F., . "On the Diffusion of New Technology: A Game Theoretic Approach," Working Papers 312, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Takalo, Tuomas & Kanniainen, Vesa, 2000. "Do patents slow down technological progress?: Real options in research, patenting, and market introduction," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1105-1127, October.
- Benoit, Jean-Pierre, 1985. "Innovation and Imitation in a Duopoly," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 99-106, January.
- Haeussler, Caroline & Harhoff, Dietmar & Müller, Elisabeth, 2009.
"To Be Financed or Not... - The Role of Patents for Venture Capital Financing,"
Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems
253, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- Mueller, Elisabeth & Harhoff, Dietmar & Haeussler, Carolin, 2009. "To Be Financed or Not : The Role of Patents for Venture Capital Financing," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-003, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Haeussler, Carolin & Harhoff, Dietmar & Mueller, Elisabeth, 2009.
"To Be Financed or Not … - The Role of Patents for Venture Capital Financing,"
Discussion Papers in Business Administration
8970, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
- Haeussler, Carolin & Harhoff, Dietmar & Mueller, Elisabeth, 2009. "To Be Financed or Not… - The Role of Patents for Venture Capital Financing," CEPR Discussion Papers 7115, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Elizabeth Webster & Paul H. Jensen, 2011.
"Do Patents Matter for Commercialization?,"
Journal of Law and Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(2), pages 431 - 453.
- Bronwyn H. Hall, 2010.
"The Financing of Innovative Firms,"
Review of Economics and Institutions,
Università di Perugia, vol. 1(1).
- Nelson, Andrew J., 2012. "Putting university research in context: Assessing alternative measures of production and diffusion at Stanford," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 678-691.
- Peng Huang & Marco Ceccagnoli & Chris Forman & D.J. Wu, 2009. "Participation in a Platform Ecosystem: Appropriability, Competition, and Access to the Installed Base," Working Papers 09-14, NET Institute, revised Sep 2009.
- Simon Wakeman, 2012. "How does obtaining intellectual property rights impact technology commercialization strategy for start-up innovators? Reconciling the effects on licensing vs. financing," ESMT Research Working Papers ESMT-12-03 (R1), ESMT European School of Management and Technology, revised 11 Jul 2012.
- Lerner, Josh & Tåg, Joacim, 2012.
"Institutions and Venture Capital,"
Working Paper Series
897, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Mariagrazia Squicciarini, 2009. "Science parks: seedbeds of innovation? A duration analysis of firms’ patenting activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 169-190, February.
- Harhoff, Dietmar, 2009. "The role of patents and licenses in securing external finance for innovation," EIB Papers 11/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
- Fischer, Timo & Henkel, Joachim, 2013. "Complements and substitutes in profiting from innovation—A choice experimental approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 326-339.
- Darcy, Jacques & Krämer-Eis, Helmut & Guellec, Dominique & Debande, Olivier, 2009. "Financing technology transfer," EIB Papers 10/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
- Bottazzi, Laura, 2009. "The role of venture capital in alleviating financial constraints of innovative firms," EIB Papers 9/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Anne Shor).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.