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Reconciling Motherhood and Work: Evidence from Time Use Data in Three Countries

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Author Info

  • Andrea Ichino

    ()
    (European University Institute)

  • Anna Sanz De Galdeano

    ()
    (CSEF, University of Salerno)

Abstract

In this study we compare evidence based on time use data for three countries: Italy, Germany and Sweden. While in all these countries working mothers appear to dedicate less time to child care than non-working mothers, in Sweden the difference is smallest in absolute terms as well as statistically insignificant. In Italy maternal work is associated with the largest loss of maternal child care. To shed light on the possible reasons for this finding we consider the role of part-time job opportunities and formal or informal child care arrangements. We argue that while child care facilities increase mothers' access to employment, it is the availability of flexible working arrangements that allows them to work and still have enough time to allocate to child care.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 114.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 2004
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Publication status: Published in D. Hamermesh and G. Pfann (eds.), The Economics of Time Use. Elsevier, 2004
Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:114

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Keywords: Time use; Child care; Labor market institutions;

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References

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  1. Ermisch, John & Francesconi, Marco, 2000. "The Effect of Parents' Employment on Children's Educational Attainment," IZA Discussion Papers 215, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Richard Breen & Cecilia Garcia-Penalosa, 2002. "Bayesian Learning and Gender Segregation," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(4), pages 899-922, October.
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  6. Del Boca, Daniela, 2002. "The Effect of Child Care and Part Time Opportunities on Participation and Fertility Decisions in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 427, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Francine D. Blau & Adam J. Grossberg, 1990. "Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development," NBER Working Papers 3536, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(1).
  9. Janet Currie & V. Joseph Hotz, 2001. "Accidents Will Happen? Unintentional Injury, Maternal Employment, and Child Care Policy," NBER Working Papers 8090, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. C. Russell Hill & Frank P. Stafford, 1980. "Parental Care of Children: Time Diary Estimates of Quantity, Predictability, and Variety," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(2), pages 219-239.
  11. Sonalde Desai & P. L. Chase-Lansdale & Robert Michael, . "Mother or Market? Effects of Maternal Employment on Cognitive Development of Four-year-old Children," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 88-11, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  12. Leibowitz, Arleen, 1974. "Education and Home Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(2), pages 243-50, May.
  13. Sascha O. Becker & Samuel Bentolila & Ana Fernandes & Andrea Ichino, 2004. "Job Insecurity And Children'S Emancipation," Working Papers wp2004_04, CEMFI.
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  15. Gronau, Reuben, 1976. "The Allocation of Time of Israeli Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S201-20, August.
  16. Reuben Gronau & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2003. "Time Vs. Goods: The Value of Measuring Household Production Technologies," NBER Working Papers 9650, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Samuel Bentolila & Andrea Ichino, 2000. "Unemployment and Consumption: Are Job Losses Less Painful near the Mediterranean?," CESifo Working Paper Series 372, CESifo Group Munich.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Del Boca, Daniela & Locatelli, Marilena & Vuri, Daniela, 2004. "Child Care Choices by Italian Households," IZA Discussion Papers 983, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Stewart, Jay, 2009. "The Timing of Maternal Work and Time with Children," IZA Discussion Papers 4219, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2007. "Children, Kitchen, Church: Does Ethnicity Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 3070, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Moser, Anke, 2009. "Determinanten der Zeitverwendung für Ernährung in Deutschland: eine ökonometrische Analyse mit Zeitbudgetdaten," German Journal of Agricultural Economics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department for Agricultural Economics, vol. 58(3).
  5. Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004. "Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development," NBER Working Papers 10691, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Daiji Kawaguchi & Jungmin Lee & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2012. "A Gift of Time," NBER Working Papers 18643, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Christos Koulovatianos & Carsten Schröder & Ulrich Schmidt, 2005. "Non-Market Time and Household Well-Being," Vienna Economics Papers 0507, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
  8. García-Morán, Eva & Kuehn, Zoe, 2012. "With strings attached: Grandparent-provided child care, fertility, and female labor market outcomes," MPRA Paper 37001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Eva Garcia-Moran & Zoe Kuehn, 2012. "With Strings Attached: Grandparent-Provided Child care, Fertility, and Female Labor Market Outcomes," CEPRA working paper 1202, USI Università della Svizzera italiana.
  10. Jay Stewart & Mary Dorinda Allard, 2008. "How Does Employment Affect the Timing of Time with Children?," Working Papers 419, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  11. Ana Cardoso & Elsa Fontainha & Chiara Monfardini, 2010. "Children’s and parents’ time use: empirical evidence on investment in human capital in France, Germany and Italy," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 479-504, December.
  12. Namkee Ahn, & Juan F. Jimeno & Arantza Ugidos, . "“Mondays at the sun”: Unemployment, Time Use, and Consumption Patterns in Spain," Working Papers 2003-18, FEDEA.
  13. Amin, Vikesh & Lundborg, Petter & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2011. "Mothers Do Matter: New Evidence on the Effect of Parents' Schooling on Children's Schooling Using Swedish Twin Data," IZA Discussion Papers 5946, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech, 2010. "Parental employment and time with children in Spain," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 371-391, September.

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