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Estimating Alternative Technology Sets in Nonparametric Efficiency Analysis: Restriction Tests for Panel and Clustered Data

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  • Anne Neumann
  • Maria Nieswand
  • Torben Schubert

Abstract

Nonparametric efficiency analysis has become a widely applied technique to support industrial benchmarking as well as a variety of incentive-based regulation policies. In practice such exercises are often plagued by incomplete knowledge about the correct specifications of inputs and outputs. Simar and Wilson (2001) and Schubert and Simar (2011) propose restriction tests to support such specification decisions for cross-section data. However, the typical oligopolized market structure pertinent to regulation contexts often leads to low numbers of cross-section observations, rendering reliable estimation based on these tests practically unfeasible. This small-sample problem could often be avoided with the use of panel data, which would in any case require an extension of the cross-section restriction tests to handle panel data. In this paper we derive these tests. We prove the consistency of the proposed method and apply it to a sample of US natural gas transmission companies in 2003 through 2007. We find that the total quantity of gas delivered and gas delivered in peak periods measure essentially the same output. Therefore only one needs to be included. We also show that the length of mains as a measure of transportation service is non-redundant and therefore must be included.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by European University Institute in its series RSCAS Working Papers with number 2013/13.

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Date of creation: Mar 2013
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Handle: RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2013/13

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Keywords: Benchmarking models; Network industries; Nonparametric efficiency estimation; Data envelopment analysis; Testing restrictions; Subsampling; Bootstrap.;

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References

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  1. Joskow, P.L., 2006. "Incentive Regulation in Theory and Practice: Electricity Distribution and Transmission Networks," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0607, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  2. Jamasb, Tooraj & Pollitt, Michael, 2003. "International benchmarking and regulation: an application to European electricity distribution utilities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(15), pages 1609-1622, December.
  3. Tim Coelli & Antonio Estache & Sergio Perelman & Lourdes Trujillo, 2003. "A Primer on Efficiency Measurement for Utilities and Transport Regulators," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15149, October.
  4. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "Statistical Inference in Nonparametric Frontier Models: The State of the Art," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 49-78, January.
  5. Astrid Cullmann, 2012. "Benchmarking and firm heterogeneity: a latent class analysis for German electricity distribution companies," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 147-169, February.
  6. Simar, L. & Wilson, P.W., . "Sensitivity analysis of efficiency scores: how to bootstrap in nonparametric frontier models," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1304, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  7. Homburg, Carsten, 2001. "Using data envelopment analysis to benchmark activities," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 51-58, August.
  8. Jamasb, Tooraj & Nillesen, Paul & Pollitt, Michael, 2004. "Strategic behaviour under regulatory benchmarking," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 825-843, September.
  9. M.E. Beesley & S.C. Littlechild, 1989. "The Regulation of Privatized Monopolies in the United Kingdom," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(3), pages 454-472, Autumn.
  10. Kneip, Alois & Simar, Léopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Asymptotics And Consistent Bootstraps For Dea Estimators In Nonparametric Frontier Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(06), pages 1663-1697, December.
  11. Jamasb, T. & Pollitt, M., 2001. "International Benchmarking and Yardstick Regulation: An Application to European Electricity Utilities," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0115, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  12. Shuttleworth, Graham, 2005. "Benchmarking of electricity networks: Practical problems with its use for regulation," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 310-317, December.
  13. Mehdi Farsi & Aurelio Fetz & Massimo Filippini, 2007. "Benchmarking and Regulation in the Electricity Distribution Sector," CEPE Working paper series 07-54, CEPE Center for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich.
  14. Schefczyk, Michael, 1993. "Industrial benchmarking: A case study of performance analysis techniques," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 1-11, August.
  15. Jamasb, T. & Pollitt, M.G. & Triebs, T., 2008. "Productivity and Efficiency of US Gas Transmission Companies: A European Regulatory Perspective," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0812, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  16. Dyson, R. G. & Allen, R. & Camanho, A. S. & Podinovski, V. V. & Sarrico, C. S. & Shale, E. A., 2001. "Pitfalls and protocols in DEA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 245-259, July.
  17. Vogelsang, Ingo, 2002. "Incentive Regulation and Competition in Public Utility Markets: A 20-Year Perspective," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 5-27, July.
  18. Torben Schubert & Léopold Simar, 2011. "Innovation and export activities in the German mechanical engineering sector: an application of testing restrictions in production analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 55-69, August.
  19. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2011. "Inference by the m out of n bootstrap in nonparametric frontier models," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 33-53, August.
  20. Léopold Simar, 2003. "Detecting Outliers in Frontier Models: A Simple Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 391-424, November.
  21. Brophy Haney, A. & Pollitt, M.G., 2009. "Efficiency Analysis of Energy Networks : An International Survey of Regulators," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0926, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
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