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Back from Beyond the Bid-Ask Spread: Perspectives on Liquidity

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Author Info

  • Gianluca Marcato

    ()
    (Department of Real Estate & Planning, University of Reading)

  • Charles Ward

    ()
    (ICMA Centre, University of Reading)

Abstract

Research into the topic of liquidity has greatly benefited from the availability of data. Although bid-ask spreads were inaccessible to researchers, Roll (1984) provided a conceptual model that estimated the effective bid-ask prices from regular time series data, recorded on a daily or longer interval. Later data availability improved and researchers were able to address questions regarding the factors that influenced the spreads and the relationship between spreads and risk, return and liquidity. More recently transaction data have been used to measure the effective spread and researchers have been able to refine the concepts of liquidity to include the impact of transactions on price movements (Clayton and McKinnon, 2000) on a trade-by-trade analysis. This paper aims to use techniques that combine elements from all three approaches and, by studying US data over a relatively long time period, to throw light on earlier research as well as to reveal the changes in liquidity over the period controlling for extraneous factors such as market, age and size of REIT. It also reveals some comparable results for the UK market over the same period.

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File URL: http://www.henley.reading.ac.uk/rep/fulltxt/1506.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Henley Business School, Reading University in its series Real Estate & Planning Working Papers with number rep-wp2006-15.

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Length: 41 pages
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rdg:repxwp:rep-wp2006-15

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Web page: http://www.henley.reading.ac.uk/
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Related research

Keywords: Liquidity; REIT;

References

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  1. Kyle, Albert S, 1985. "Continuous Auctions and Insider Trading," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(6), pages 1315-35, November.
  2. Acharya, Viral V & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2003. "Asset Pricing with Liquidity Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 3749, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Clark, Peter K, 1973. "A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(1), pages 135-55, January.
  4. Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  5. Bollerslev, Tim & Melvin, Michael, 1994. "Bid--ask spreads and volatility in the foreign exchange market : An empirical analysis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 355-372, May.
  6. Dennis R. Capozza & Patric H. Hendershott & Charlotte Mack, 2004. "An Anatomy of Price Dynamics in Illiquid Markets: Analysis and Evidence from Local Housing Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 32(1), pages 1-32, 03.
  7. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 3-28, April.
  8. Holthausen, Robert W. & Leftwich, Richard W. & Mayers, David, 1987. "The effect of large block transactions on security prices: A cross-sectional analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 237-267, December.
  9. Boothe, Paul M, 1988. "Exchange Rate Risk and the Bid-Ask Spread: A Seven Country Comparison," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 26(3), pages 485-92, July.
  10. Bessembinder, Hendrik & Kaufman, Herbert M., 1997. "A Comparison of Trade Execution Costs for NYSE and NASDAQ-Listed Stocks," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(03), pages 287-310, September.
  11. Huang, Roger D. & Stoll, Hans R., 1996. "Dealer versus auction markets: A paired comparison of execution costs on NASDAQ and the NYSE," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 313-357, July.
  12. Chan, Louis K C & Lakonishok, Josef, 1997. " Institutional Equity Trading Costs: NYSE versus Nasdaq," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 713-35, June.
  13. Stoll, Hans R, 1989. " Inferring the Components of the Bid-Ask Spread: Theory and Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 115-34, March.
  14. Edward F. Nelling & James M. Mahoney & Terry L. Hildebrand & Michael A. Goldstein, 1995. "Real Estate Investment Trusts, Small Stocks and Bid-ask Spreads," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 45-63.
  15. Harris, Lawrence, 1990. " Statistical Properties of the Roll Serial Covariance Bid/Ask Spread Estimator," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 579-90, June.
  16. Jim Clayton & Greg MacKinnon, 2000. "Measuring and Explaining Changes in REIT Liquidity: Moving Beyond the Bid-Ask Spread," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 28(1), pages 89-115.
  17. Karpoff, Jonathan M., 1987. "The Relation between Price Changes and Trading Volume: A Survey," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(01), pages 109-126, March.
  18. Tarun Chordia, 2001. "Market Liquidity and Trading Activity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 501-530, 04.
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