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Thirty Years of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Inference

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  • James G. MacKinnon

    ()
    (Queen's University)

Abstract

White (1980) marked the beginning of a new era for inference in econometrics. It introduced the revolutionary idea of inference that is robust to heteroskedasticity of unknown form, an idea that was very soon extended to other forms of robust inference and also led to many new estimation methods. This paper discusses the development of heteroskedasticity-robust inference since 1980. There have been two principal lines of investigation. One approach has been to modify White's original estimator to improve its finite-sample properties, and the other has been to use bootstrap methods. The relation between these two approaches, and some ways in which they may be combined, are discussed. Finally, a simulation experiment compares various methods and shows how far heteroskedasticity-robust inference has come in just over thirty years.

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File URL: http://www.econ.queensu.ca/working_papers/papers/qed_wp_1268.pdf
File Function: Second version 2012
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Queen's University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1268.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:1268

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Keywords: wild bootstrap; HCCME; power; finite-sample;

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  1. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
  2. Cribari-Neto, Francisco, 2004. "Asymptotic inference under heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 215-233, March.
  3. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1994. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 631-53, October.
  4. Jeff Racine & James G. MacKinnon, 2004. "Simulation-based Tests that Can Use Any Number of Simulations," Working Papers 1027, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  5. Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 333-355, September.
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  7. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2007. "Wild Bootstrap Tests For Iv Regression," Departmental Working Papers 2007-14, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  8. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2004. "The Power of Bootstrap and Asymptotic Tests," Working Papers 1035, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  9. Flachaire, Emmanuel, 2005. "Bootstrapping heteroskedastic regression models: wild bootstrap vs. pairs bootstrap," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 361-376, April.
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  11. Paparoditis, Efstathios & Politis, Dimitris N., 2005. "Bootstrap hypothesis testing in regression models," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(4), pages 356-365, October.
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  13. Flachaire, Emmanuel, 1999. "A better way to bootstrap pairs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 257-262, September.
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  20. Davidson, R. & Mackinnon, J.G., 1996. "The Size Distorsion of Bootstrap Tests," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 96a15, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  21. Andrews, Donald W K & Monahan, J Christopher, 1992. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 953-66, July.
  22. White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
  23. James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Bootstrap inference in econometrics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 615-645, November.
  24. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The bootstrap and hypothesis tests in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 37-40, January.
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  26. White, Halbert & Domowitz, Ian, 1984. "Nonlinear Regression with Dependent Observations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 143-61, January.
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