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Thirty Years of Heteroskedasticity-Robust Inference

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  • James G. MacKinnon

    ()
    (Queen's University)

Abstract

White (1980) marked the beginning of a new era for inference in econometrics. It introduced the revolutionary idea of inference that is robust to heteroskedasticity of unknown form, an idea that was very soon extended to other forms of robust inference and also led to many new estimation methods. This paper discusses the development of heteroskedasticity-robust inference since 1980. There have been two principal lines of investigation. One approach has been to modify White's original estimator to improve its finite-sample properties, and the other has been to use bootstrap methods. The relation between these two approaches, and some ways in which they may be combined, are discussed. Finally, a simulation experiment compares various methods and shows how far heteroskedasticity-robust inference has come in just over thirty years.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Queen's University, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 1268.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:qed:wpaper:1268

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Keywords: wild bootstrap; HCCME; power; finite-sample;

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  1. Davidson, R. & Mackinnon, J.G., 1996. "The Size Distorsion of Bootstrap Tests," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 96a15, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
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  3. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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  5. Russell Davidson & James G. MacKinnon, 2008. "Wild Bootstrap Tests for IV Regression," Working Papers 1135, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  6. Tsung-Wu Ho, 2001. "Finite-sample properties of the bootstrap estimator in a Markov-switching model," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(7), pages 835-842.
  7. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 2006. "The power of bootstrap and asymptotic tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(2), pages 421-441, August.
  8. Flachaire, Emmanuel, 1999. "A better way to bootstrap pairs," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 257-262, September.
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  10. Paparoditis, Efstathios & Politis, Dimitris N., 2005. "Bootstrap hypothesis testing in regression models," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(4), pages 356-365, October.
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  14. Donald W.K. Andrews & Christopher J. Monahan, 1990. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 942, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  15. Cribari-Neto, Francisco, 2004. "Asymptotic inference under heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 215-233, March.
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  17. Doug Miller & A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach, 2006. "Bootstrap-Based Improvements for Inference with Clustered Errors," Working Papers 621, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  18. Donald W.K. Andrews, 1988. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 877R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 1989.
  19. Kenneth D. West & Whitney K. Newey, 1995. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," NBER Technical Working Papers 0144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Horowitz, Joel L., 2001. "The Bootstrap," Handbook of Econometrics, in: J.J. Heckman & E.E. Leamer (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 5, chapter 52, pages 3159-3228 Elsevier.
  21. James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Bootstrap inference in econometrics," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 615-645, November.
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  23. Francisco Cribari-Neto & Maria Lima, 2010. "Sequences of bias-adjusted covariance matrix estimators under heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer, vol. 62(6), pages 1053-1082, December.
  24. James G. MacKinnon & Halbert White, 1983. "Some Heteroskedasticity Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimators with Improved Finite Sample Properties," Working Papers 537, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  25. White, Halbert & Domowitz, Ian, 1984. "Nonlinear Regression with Dependent Observations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 143-61, January.
  26. Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 333-355, September.
  27. Jeff Racine & James G. MacKinnon, 2004. "Simulation-based Tests that Can Use Any Number of Simulations," Working Papers 1027, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  28. White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
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