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Poverty across the agro- ecological zones in rural Pakistan

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  • G. M., Arif
  • Ahmad, Munir

Abstract

Poverty has increased during the 90s overall as well as in rural and urban areas, after experiencing downward trends during the 80s. Besides, the gap between rural and urban poverty has also widened. The recent estimates show that more than one-third of our population lives in extreme poverty, and around 70% of these unfortunate people reside in rural areas. The results based on agro-ecological divisions of the country indicate that poverty is lowest in the barani areas of the Punjab because of better opportunities in terms of employment in other sectors, particularly, the services sector as well as overseas migration. The highest is observed in Balochistan may be due to nonavailability of irrigation water and low rainfall making dwellers more vulnerable to droughts seriously affecting the crops and the livestock which are the main sources of their livelihood. Poverty is widely spread in irrigated areas of the country particularly in Southern Punjab and Sindh where feudal system still prevails. Job opportunities outside agriculture are limited and migration within the country or overseas is not a common phenomenon in these areas of the country.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 37681.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Publication status: Published in Irrigation Against Rural Poverty: An Overview of Issues and Pro-Poor Intervention Strategies in Irrigation Agriculture in Asia (Ed) Intizar Hussain and Eric Biltonen.Intern(2001): pp. 177-186
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37681

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Keywords: Poverty; Rural; Urban and Agro-ecological Zones;

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References

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  1. Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
  2. Sarfraz K. Qureshi & G. M. Arif, 2001. "Profile of Poverty in Pakistan, 1998-99," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:05, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  3. G. M. Arif & Hina Nazli & Rashida Haq, 2000. "Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1089-1110.
  4. Aldi Hagenaars & Klaas de Vos, 1988. "The Definition and Measurement of Poverty," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(2), pages 211-221.
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Cited by:
  1. Arif, G.M, 2004. "Bonded labour in agriculture : a rapid assessment in Punjab and north west frontier province, Pakistan," ILO Working Papers 367533, International Labour Organization.
  2. Rashid Amjad & G. M. Arif & Usman Mustafa, 2008. "Does the Labor Market Structure Explain Differences in Poverty in Rural Punjab?," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(Special E), pages 139-162, September.
  3. Munir Ahmad, 2003. "Agricultural Productivity, Efficiency, and Rural Poverty in Irrigated Pakistan: A Stochastic Production FrontiermAnalysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 219-248.

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