Agricultural Productivity, Efficiency, and Rural Poverty in Irrigated Pakistan: A Stochastic Production FrontiermAnalysis
AbstractThe main objective of this study is to estimate the input elasticities of production for poor and non-poor farms. The study estimates the stochastic frontier production function. The results show that the elasticities of production differ for poor and non-poor farms. The production elasticity of land is substantially higher on rich farms as compared to the farms belonging to poor farmers. This implies higher returns on investment on land by the rich farmers. The salinity/sodicity problem and the tail-end location of the plot adversely affect farm productivity and efficiency, particularly at the poor farms. Moreover, the average cost of the existence of technical inefficiencies is about 43 percent in terms of loss in output, with wide variations across farms ranging from 17 percent to 62 percent. The study further concludes that the least efficient group is not only operating far below the frontier but it also operates at the lower portion of the production frontier. Consequently, increasing access to the inputs would likely raise productivity and reduce poverty. The results imply that the land distribution using the notion of land reforms in favour of poor/small farmers in the presence of existing farm structure, rural infrastructure, and the weak farm-supporting institutions is not expected to raise farm productivity and reduce poverty among the poor farmers. The results call for a strong and active role of the government in close partnership with the private sector to initiate income-generating activities and inputs supply chains in the rural areas to break the nexus of poverty, land degradation, and low agricultural productivity.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 42 (2003)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1996.
"Why have some Indian states done better than others at reducing rural poverty?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1594, The World Bank.
- Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998. "Why Have Some Indian States Done Better Than Others at Reducing Rural Poverty?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(257), pages 17-38, February.
- George E. Battese & Sohail J. Malik & Manzoor A. Gill, 1996. "An Investigation Of Technical Inefficiencies Of Production Of Wheat Farmers In Four Districts Of Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1-4), pages 37-49.
- Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1997.
"Health and Wages: Evidence on Men and Women in Urban Brazil,"
97-05, RAND - Reprint Series.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1997. "Health and wages: Evidence on men and women in urban Brazil," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 159-185, March.
- Bashir Ahmad & Munir Ahmad & Zulfiqar Ahmad Gill, 1998. "Restoration of Soil Health for Achieving Sustainable Growth in Agriculture," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 997-1015.
- Bliss, Christopher & Stern, Nicholas, 1978. "Productivity, wages and nutrition : Part II: Some observations," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 363-398, December.
- Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998.
"Farm productivity and rural poverty in India,"
FCND discussion papers
42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- George E. Battese, 1997. "A Note On The Estimation Of Cobb-Douglas Production Functions When Some Explanatory Variables Have Zero Values," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1-3), pages 250-252.
- S.M. Naseem, 1973. "Mass Poverty in Pakistan. Some Preliminary Findings," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 12(4), pages 317-360.
- Mohammad, Irfan & Amjad, Rashid, 1994. "Poverty in rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 38335, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Tilat Anwar, 1996. "Structural Adjustment and Poverty: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 911-926.
- Croppenstedt, Andre & Muller, Christophe, 2000. "The Impact of Farmers' Health and Nutritional Status on Their Productivity and Efficiency: Evidence from Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 475-502, April.
- K. Kalirajan, 1981. "An Econometric Analysis of Yield Variability in Paddy Production," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 29(3), pages 283-294, November.
- Strauss, John, 1986. "Does Better Nutrition Raise Farm Productivity?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(2), pages 297-320, April.
- Battese, George E., 1992. "Frontier production functions and technical efficiency: a survey of empirical applications in agricultural economics," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 7(3-4), pages 185-208, October.
- Ahmad, Munir & Chaudhry, Ghulam Mustafa & Iqbal, Muhammad, 2002.
"Wheat Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis,"
3672, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2002.
- Munir Ahmad & Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry & Mohammad Iqbal, 2002. "Wheat Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability: A Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 643-663.
- Lele, Uma, 1989. "Sources of Growth in East African Agriculture," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 3(1), pages 119-44, January.
- G. M., Arif & Ahmad, Munir, 2001. "Poverty across the agro- ecological zones in rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- A. de Janvry & E. Sadoulet, 2002. "World Poverty and the Role of Agricultural Technology: Direct and Indirect Effects," The Journal of Development Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 1-26.
- Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
- Muhammad Iqbal & M. Azeem Khan & Munir Ahmad, 2002.
"Adoption of Recommended Varieties: A Farm-level Analysis of Wheat Growers in Irrigated Punjab,"
The Pakistan Development Review,
Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 41(1), pages 29-48.
- Iqbal, Muhammad & Khan, M. Azeem & Ahmad, Munir, 2002. "Adoption of Recommended Varieties: A Farm level Analysis of Wheat Growers in Irrigated Punjab," MPRA Paper 2537, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2002.
- G. M. Arif & Hina Nazli & Rashida Haq, 2000. "Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1089-1110.
- Bhargava, Alok, 1997. "Nutritional status and the allocation of time in Rwandese households," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 277-295, March.
- Mark W. Rosegrant & Robert E. Evenson, 1993. "Agricultural Productivity Growth in Pakistan and India: A Comparative Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 433-451.
- Munir Ahmad & Sarfraz Khan Qureshi, 1999. "Recent Evidence on Farm Size and Land Productivity: Implications for Public Policy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 1135-1153.
- Ulimwengu, John M., 2009. "Farmers' health status, agricultural efficiency, and poverty in rural Ethiopia: A stochastic production frontier approach," IFPRI discussion papers 868, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Munir Ahmad & Umar Farooq, 2010. "The State of Food Security in Pakistan: Future Challenges and Coping Strategies," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 903â923.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.